OECD Statistics Directorate: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kementerian Keuangan: Ditjen. Bea dan Cukai, Ditjen. Pengelolaan Utang (Debt Management Office-DMO); Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral: Ditjen. Migas; Satuan Kerja Khusus Pelaksana Kegiatan Usaha Hulu Minyak dan Gas Bumi (SKK Migas), PT. PERTAMINA (Persero); PT. Garuda Indonesia (Persero); Kementerian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif; Kementerian Agama; Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi; Kementerian Perhubungan; Kementerian Luar Negeri; Kementerian Negara BUMN; Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS); Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI); Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI); Dewan Asuransi Indonesia (DAI); Bank Indonesia.
Key statistical concept
Indonesia's balance of payments is a statistical statement that systemically summarises economic transactions between residents and nonresidents within a certain period
of time. Indonesia's BOP coverage is largely in accordance with the concepts set out in the of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, 6th edition (BPM6). In principle, all transactions between residents and nonresidents are recorded in the BOP. Indonesia's BOP covers all residents institutional units, such as domestic firms affiliated with nonresident companies, territorial enclaves (such as embassy), companies in free trade zones/bonded zones under supervision of Customs, and Indonesian working abroad temporarily.
The current account includes exports and imports of goods, services, primary income, and secondary income. The financial account includes direct investment, portfolio investment, financial derivatives, and other investment excluding foreign exchange reserves and credit/loans with the IMF which are presented as separate component.
Goods transactions include exports and imports of general merchandise, nonmonetary gold, and net exports of goods under merchanting.
Services transactions include exports and imports of manufacturing services, maintenance and repair services, transportation services, travel services, construction services, insurance and pension services, financial services, charges for the use of intellectual property, telecommunications, computer, and information services, other business services, personal, cultural, and recreational services, and government goods and services.
Primary income transactions consist of compensation of employees and investment income from direct investment, portfolio investment, and other investment. Secondary income transactions divided by institutional sectors receiving or giving transfers which consist of government and other sectors. Other sectors' transactions also include workers' remittances.
Capital and financial transactions consist of:
a. Capital account consists of capital transfers which include transfer of ownership of fixed assets (e.g. investment grants) or debt forgiveness on the basis of agreement by both creditor and debtor, and cash transfers linked to acquisition/disposal of fixed assets by one or both transacting parties.
b. Financial account consists of transactions in order to direct investment, portfolio investment, financial derivatives, and other investment.
Direct investment is presented in assets and liabilities principle.
- Direct investment on assets side is Indonesian resident investment in a company abroad which is characterized by ownership of equity capital at least 10% and debt instruments to nonresident company.
- Direct investment on liabilities side is nonresident investment in a company in Indonesia which is characterized by ownership of equity capital at least 10% and debt instruments.
- Nonresident affiliated company may be a direct investor, direct investment enterprise (subsidiary or affiliate), or a fellow enterprise in its relationship to other enterprises.
For analysis purpose, direct investment is also presented based on directional principle (as in BPM5).
- Direct investment abroad is Indonesian resident investment in a company abroad, which is characterized by the presence of initial transaction in ownership of equity capital at least 10%. Subsequent transactions between Indonesian enterprises with its direct investment enterprise (subsidiary or associate) and nonresident fellow enterprises, in assets and liabilities, are recorded as direct investment abroad.
- Direct investment in Indonesia is nonresident investment in a company in Indonesia, which is characterized by the presence of initial transaction in ownership of equity capital at least 10%. Subsequent transactions between Indonesian enterprises with its direct investor and nonresident fellow enterprises, in assets and liabilities, are recorded as direct investment in Indonesia.
Equity capital consists of ownership of shares and reinvested earnings. Debt instruments consist of securities, loans, and other assets/liabilities.
Direct investment data, on assets and liabilities side, consist of investment in all economic sectors, including in oil and gas sectors.
Details of direct investment in Indonesia by country of origin, economic sector, and cross-tabulation of country of origin and economic sector are based on concept in BPM5 (i.e. directional principle).
Portfolio investment on assets side includes resident sales and purchase of securities (shares or short-term/long-term debt securities) issued by nonresident, while on liabilities side, portfolio investment includes nonresident sales and purchase of securities issued by Indonesian resident.
Financial derivatives cover financial instrument that are linked to another specific financial instrument, indicator or commodity, and through this, specific financial risks (such as interest rate risk and exchange rate risk) can be traded in financial markets.
Financial derivatives transactions only cover transactions in banking sector.
Other investment on assets side includes loans extended to and other claims on nonresident, while on liabilities side, other investment includes loan received from and other liabilities to nonresident.
Reserve asset transactions include receipt and payment transactions that are done by Bank Indonesia and government .
Some transactions between resident and nonresident have not been recorded yet in e-commerce transactions, shuttle trade, smuggling, transfers, acquisition or disposal of nonproduced nonfinancial assets, and arrears.