Country
Year19901995200020052010201120122013201420152016201720182019
VariableUnit
Environmental and resource productivityCO2 ProductivityProduction-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsInformation on itemUS dollars per kilogram, 20151.962.092.162.342.562.672.742.862.993.023.033.093.16..
Production-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes15.3115.8617.6218.1117.3016.9416.6716.1415.5215.5615.6915.6115.38..
Production-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100Information on itemIndex, 2000=10077.6085.26100.00109.22114.56114.08114.08112.19109.43111.30113.73114.68114.41..
Production-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions259.70285.32334.65365.52383.36381.78381.76375.43366.19372.45380.58383.79382.88..
Demand-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsInformation on itemUS dollars per kilogram, 2015......2.042.202.262.232.392.592.64........
Demand-based CO2 productivity, disposable income per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsInformation on itemUS dollars per kilogram, 2015......1.631.761.831.811.932.082.10........
Demand-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes......20.7420.1419.9820.4919.2717.9317.82........
Demand-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions......418.42446.21450.35469.37448.02423.10426.40........
CO2 emissions from air transport per capitaTonnes..............685.02670.16675.07685.97687.43681.56..
CO2 emissions from air transport per unit of GDPInformation on itemKilograms, 2015..............14.8514.4314.3414.4314.2414.03..
Energy productivityEnergy productivity, GDP per unit of TPESInformation on itemUS Dollar, 20155 921.966 460.156 690.727 535.957 774.098 032.308 331.408 420.938 648.558 900.189 125.399 302.589 448.83..
Energy intensity, TPES per capitaTonnes of oil equivalent (toe)5.085.145.695.625.705.635.485.485.375.295.215.195.14..
Total primary energy supply, index 2000=100Information on itemIndex, 2000=10079.6885.58100.00104.97116.77117.45116.16117.83117.25117.09116.90118.05118.43..
Total primary energy supplyTonnes of oil equivalent (toe), Millions86.1492.51108.11113.49126.24126.97125.58127.39126.75126.58126.38127.62128.03..
Renewable energy supply, % total energy supplyPercentage5.895.985.885.695.295.455.496.016.256.326.556.977.08..
Renewable electricity, % total electricity generationPercentage9.669.628.388.808.6010.3610.4913.1214.6013.3014.5015.6017.04..
Energy consumption in agriculture, % total energy consumptionPercentage2.302.332.313.202.872.752.762.752.762.932.973.183.17..
Energy consumption in services, % total energy consumptionPercentage6.146.667.248.639.148.988.889.019.179.689.709.849.90..
Energy consumption in industry, % total energy consumptionPercentage34.1033.8134.1930.8329.4029.3629.3729.1828.8727.6327.1926.9226.90..
Energy consumption in transport, % total energy consumptionPercentage37.2637.0636.8737.5839.3139.0638.7838.8738.8540.0240.1840.6440.79..
Energy consumption in other sectors, % total energy consumptionPercentage20.2020.1419.3819.7619.2819.8520.2120.2020.3419.7419.9619.4219.24..
Non-energy material productivityNon-energy material productivity, GDP per unit of DMCInformation on itemUS dollars per kilogram, 20150.981.041.041.191.431.421.481.481.511.541.571.61....
Biomass, % of DMCPercentage
(E25.68
(E29.28
(E28.02
(E28.17
(E25.50
(E25.29
(E26.70
(E24.90
(E26.00
(E25.88
(E25.74
(E25.63
....
Non-metallic minerals, % of DMCPercentage
(E29.34
(E28.52
(E24.27
(E26.74
(E28.06
(E28.25
(E28.68
(E28.74
(E29.32
(E29.73
(E30.09
(E30.38
....
Metals, % of DMCPercentage
(E44.99
(E42.20
(E47.71
(E45.10
(E46.44
(E46.45
(E44.62
(E46.36
(E44.68
(E44.39
(E44.17
(E43.99
....
Municipal waste generated, kg per capitaKilograms per capita....
(E695.05
..610.89596.77592.58588.89585.56585.10558.02559.33....
Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste Percentage........39.6341.9642.9944.0145.0144.9345.3045.68....
Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated wastePercentage........58.3155.9855.1754.3753.5953.4552.8853.77....
Nitrogen balance per hectareKilograms20.4219.4520.7415.3316.5417.1218.6618.3919.1719.8118.6519.83....
Phosphorus balance per hectareKilograms1.021.121.340.720.680.810.810.770.991.060.810.85....
Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivityEnvironmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growthPercentage points..2.040.961.160.342.011.50..............
Contribution of natural capitalPercentage points..0.050.150.180.400.300.40..............
Adjustment for pollution abatementPercentage points..-0.45-0.15-0.07-0.010.12-0.03..............
Natural asset baseFreshwater resourcesTotal renewable freshwater per capitaCubic metres per capita..................16 374.71........
Total freshwater abstraction per capitaCubic metres per capita..1 337.79..658.12625.11608.26714.03865.92820.84759.34691.31703.12....
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total available renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E5.90
..
(E3.26
(E3.40
(E3.36
(E4.01
(E4.94
(E4.75
(E4.46
(E4.11
(E4.24
....
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total internal renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E5.90
..
(E3.26
(E3.40
(E3.36
(E4.01
(E4.94
(E4.75
(E4.46
(E4.11
(E4.24
....
Permanent surface water, % total surfacePercentage..................0.14........
Seasonal surface water, % total surface Percentage..................0.52........
Conversion of permanent water to not-water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................12.73........
Conversion of permanent to seasonal water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................12.69........
Conversion of not-water to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................16.15........
Conversion of seasonal to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................2.46........
Land resourcesNatural and semi-natural vegetated land, % totalPercentage..................87.04........
Bare land, % totalPercentage..................4.38........
Cropland, % totalPercentage..................8.16........
Artificial surfaces, % total Percentage..................0.16........
Water, % totalPercentage..................0.26........
Built up area, % total landPercentage0.12..0.14..........0.15..........
Built up area per capitaSquare metres544.97..544.58..........497.64..........
New built up area, % since 1990Percentage....11.80..........25.79..........
New built up area, % since 2000Information on itemPercentage, 2000................12.51..........
Irrigated land, % agricultural landPercentage0.39..0.520.540.460.500.530.600.580.560.580.57
(E0.58
..
Forest resourcesForests under sustainable management certification FSC, % total forest areaPercentage....0.000.400.49
(E0.66
(E0.79
(E0.74
(E0.87
..........
Intact forest landscape, km2Square kilometres....82 593.45........55 616.44....54 150.84......
Intact forest landscape loss, % since 2000Information on itemPercentage, 2000..............32.66....34.44......
Wildlife resourcesThreatened mammal species, % total known speciesPercentage..................28.61........
Threatened bird species, % total known speciesPercentage..................17.09........
Threatened vascular plant species, % total known speciesPercentage..................6.65........
Sales of pesticides per unit of agricultural landKilograms0.040.060.070.080.110.120.120.110.120.130.170.15
(E0.14
..
Atmosphere and climateAnnual surface temperature, change since 1951-1980Number
(E0.50
(E0.35
(E0.12
(E1.14
(E0.64
(E0.18
(E0.27
(E1.45
(E1.14
(E1.05
(E1.14
(E1.12
(E1.11
(E1.42
Environmental dimension of quality of lifeExposure to environmental risksMean population exposure to PM2.5Micrograms per cubic metre10.3610.4210.7410.5310.5410.8810.409.849.369.208.548.52....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 micrograms/m3Percentage32.1832.2134.9634.6334.0837.5931.7429.7228.3527.3626.0025.98....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 micrograms/m3Percentage0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00....
Mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5Per 1 000 000 inhabitants300.07284.45263.71231.55217.45223.71209.10198.21193.41192.03181.94187.09....
Welfare costs of premature mortalities from exposure to ambient PM2.5, GDP equivalentPercentage3.062.852.572.212.052.101.961.861.811.791.691.74....
Mortality from exposure to ambient ozonePer 1 000 000 inhabitants3.884.194.134.356.196.837.378.099.1410.2211.1612.53....
Welfare costs of premature deaths from exposure to ambient ozone, GDP equivalentPercentage0.040.040.040.040.060.060.070.080.090.100.100.12....
Mortality from exposure to leadPer 1 000 000 inhabitants132.66126.72116.43102.9292.3791.0787.6285.7286.5087.3188.4690.09....
Welfare costs of premature deaths from exposure to lead, GDP equivalentPercentage1.351.271.130.980.870.860.820.800.810.810.820.84....
Mortality from exposure to residential radonPer 1 000 000 inhabitants1.841.871.861.861.841.831.791.791.821.831.841.90....
Welfare costs of premature mortalities from exposure to residential radon, GDP equivalentPercentage0.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.020.02....
Access to drinking water and sewage treatmentPopulation with access to improved sanitation, % total populationPercentage....64.2165.0969.4970.3771.2472.1273.0073.8874.7675.64....
Population connected to public sewerage, % total populationPercentage........92.7993.8494.1094.0892.5792.38
(E92.48
92.6992.64..
Population connected to sewerage with primary treatment, % total populationPercentage........
(E27.63
(E22.99
(E37.52
(E21.63
(E19.64
(E20.49
(E20.11
(E19.79
(E16.96
..
Population connected to sewerage with secondary treatment, % total populationPercentage........
(E31.75
(E30.32
(E9.83
(E24.81
(E23.21
(E22.27
(E23.94
(E24.54
(E24.58
..
Population connected to sewerage with tertiary treatment, % total populationPercentage........
(E33.40
(E40.54
(E46.74
(E47.64
(E49.72
(E49.62
(E48.44
(E48.36
(E51.10
..
Economic opportunities and policy responsesTechnology and innovation: PatentsDevelopment of environment-related technologies, % all technologiesPercentage8.9610.867.989.4213.5312.1310.8710.5510.279.619.16......
Relative advantage in environment-related technologyRatio1.321.611.201.241.151.030.940.980.980.991.01......
Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwidePercentage1.191.581.331.240.900.800.720.750.750.750.77......
Development of environment-related technologies, inventions per capitaNumber5.497.9710.8413.6314.5613.3711.9711.9811.3710.5510.18......
Technology and innovation: R&DEnvironmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&DPercentage
(B3.12
(B1.19
(B2.95
(B1.82
(B3.95
(B3.56
(B4.05
(B3.89
(B3.87
(B3.86
(B3.49
(B4.62
(EB3.71
(EB3.61
Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDPPercentage
(I0.04
..0.03......................
Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&DPercentage..4.60..12.4220.2433.6433.4053.9330.4054.0633.1033.6828.0631.75
Energy public RD&D budget, % GDPPercentage..0.02..0.020.030.040.050.060.020.020.010.010.010.01
Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&DPercentage..51.82..22.948.7612.937.654.9026.5516.739.3623.3720.416.29
International financial flows: Official Development AssistanceEnvironmentally related ODA, % total ODAPercentage
(E0.48
13.745.8710.9018.2017.4517.1011.0211.0710.7217.7516.1016.00..
ODA - all sectors - biodiversity, % total ODAPercentage....2.570.847.057.358.154.863.124.747.939.118.00..
ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODAPercentage....1.321.417.294.478.015.283.784.027.458.628.09..
ODA - all sectors - climate change adaptation, % total ODAPercentage........0.0011.8611.947.876.308.1913.1613.4711.71..
ODA - all sectors - desertification, % total ODAPercentage....1.590.2210.333.276.552.932.013.155.356.545.74..
ODA - renewable energy sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.000.000.030.000.010.000.080.070.350.360.230.820.38..
ODA - water supply and sanitation sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage2.963.9510.000.317.058.725.887.735.775.794.384.185.09..
ODA - environment sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.590.053.441.663.253.754.434.501.791.330.732.041.55..
Net ODA provided, % GNIPercentage0.340.340.270.250.320.340.360.330.310.290.270.23....
Environmental taxes and transfersEnvironmentally related taxes, % GDPPercentage..
(EI2.61
(EI2.69
(EI2.19
(EI1.88
(EI1.82
(EI2.33
(EI2.29
(EI1.83
(EI1.85
(EI1.73
......
Environmentally related taxes, % total tax revenuePercentage..
(EI9.23
(EI8.82
(EI7.31
(EI7.45
(EI7.05
(EI8.66
(EI8.44
(EI6.72
(EI6.63
(EI6.28
......
Energy related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..75.6765.69
(EI64.96
(EI63.17
(EI61.87
(EI68.06
(EI67.46
(EI59.10
(EI58.51
(EI60.29
......
Road transport-related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..
(I24.17
(EI33.51
(I34.11
(I35.02
(I35.93
(I29.24
(I29.97
(I38.35
(I38.66
(I36.92
......
Emissions priced above EUR 30 per tonne of CO2, % total emissionsPercentage........................0.20..
Emissions priced above EUR 60 per tonne of CO2, % total emissionsPercentage........................0.20..
Petrol tax, USD per litreInformation on itemUS dollars per litre, 2015..0.440.420.340.290.280.280.270.260.260.260.260.260.26
Petrol end-user price, USD per litreInformation on itemUS dollars per litre, 2015..0.780.890.970.981.071.061.041.030.890.820.870.950.93
Diesel tax, USD per litreInformation on itemUS dollars per litre, 20150.380.470.420.340.290.280.280.270.260.260.260.260.260.26
Diesel end-user price, USD per litreInformation on itemUS dollars per litre, 20150.710.760.891.040.951.071.061.051.050.860.780.840.950.91
Residential electricity price, USD per kWhInformation on itemUS Dollar, 20150.110.120.11......0.190.200.210.190.180.200.210.20
Mean feed-in tariff for solar PV electricity generationUS Dollar....0.000.000.350.440.400.340.280.230.230.230.230.21
Mean feed-in tariff for wind electricity generationUS Dollar....0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
Fossil fuel consumer support, % total tax revenuePercentage..0.992.121.701.221.201.111.021.021.011.401.461.21..
Fossil fuel consumer support, % energy related tax revenuePercentage..14.7438.1637.1826.9228.6519.6818.5526.8127.1838.44......
Fossil fuel consumer support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..71.0384.4971.5174.5371.9482.6978.2479.5279.4471.4572.4769.6169.45
Fossil fuel producer support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..28.9715.4528.4025.2027.6916.6521.1520.2520.3727.9727.3630.1630.46
Fossil fuel general services support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..0.000.060.090.260.370.650.610.230.190.580.170.230.08
Petroleum support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..92.4295.5295.6578.7075.1469.8565.9371.6372.5479.9378.8686.6987.47
Coal support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..4.852.191.200.353.600.084.300.240.250.470.080.120.05
Gas support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage..2.732.291.531.971.762.452.321.882.351.581.411.591.50
Electricity support, % total fossil fuel supportInformation on itemPercentage..0.000.001.6218.9919.5027.6227.4626.2524.8718.0219.6411.6110.99
Total fossil fuel support, % of total tax revenuePercentage0.001.392.512.371.631.671.351.301.291.271.952.011.74..
Regulations and managementTerrestrial protected area, % land areaPercentage5.066.117.069.0711.3412.1413.8215.4116.7518.1418.8519.1019.2019.20
Marine protected area, % total exclusive economic zonePercentage4.664.854.965.345.815.8811.0711.0811.0811.0811.2811.4040.9540.95
Socio-economic contextEconomic contextReal GDP, Index 2000=100Information on itemIndex, 2000=10070.5282.63100.00118.24135.68141.00144.64148.31151.56155.76159.44164.13167.25
(E170.24
Value added in industry, % of total value addedPercentage30.1328.3725.9327.8128.2928.0226.8127.2925.3423.9725.1425.8626.97..
Value added in agriculture, % of total value addedPercentage3.463.693.842.962.442.402.432.372.542.582.902.632.23..
Value added in services, % of total value addedPercentage66.4167.9370.2369.2369.2769.5870.7670.3472.1273.4471.9771.5170.80..
Real GDP per capitaInformation on itemUS Dollar, 201530 076.2933 215.4038 086.3042 382.4844 297.6645 250.4045 678.3946 128.6446 457.8147 074.5447 533.2348 290.1848 586.52
(E48 857.29
Labour tax revenue, % GDPPercentage13.7913.4212.8513.2211.0611.5511.9712.0212.6712.9512.6112.87
(E13.09
..
Labour tax revenue, % total tax revenuePercentage49.0847.4442.2044.1043.7644.6244.4744.3546.4546.4245.6545.15
(E44.50
..
Social contextPopulationPer 1 000 inhabitants16 960.6017 993.0818 991.4320 178.5422 154.6922 538.0022 903.9523 254.9123 596.4323 932.5024 262.7124 584.6224 898.1525 203.20
Population, ages 0-14, % totalPercentage22.0921.5720.8819.8119.0319.0018.9718.9418.9118.8918.9719.0619.1419.22
Population, ages 15-64, % totalPercentage66.8566.5766.7967.3167.5967.3167.0366.7766.5166.2665.8965.5365.1764.83
Population, ages 65 and above, % totalPercentage11.0611.8612.3212.8713.3813.6914.0014.2914.5814.8515.1415.4215.6915.95
Women, % total populationPercentage50.1550.2550.1250.1049.9950.0150.0550.1050.1450.1750.1950.2050.2050.20
Total fertility rate, children per womanChildren1.861.821.781.881.911.901.891.871.861.851.841.831.821.81
Life expectancy at birthYears77.0978.3879.7481.0282.0182.1982.3682.5382.7082.8683.0383.2083.3583.50
Net migrationPer 1 000 inhabitants472.33373.48508.94962.191 077.951 033.66989.38949.75910.12870.49830.86791.23768.45745.68
Population density, inhabitants per km2Inhabitants2.212.342.472.632.882.932.983.033.073.123.153.20
(E3.24
(E3.28
Legend:
BBreak
EEstimated value
IIncomplete data
Data extracted on 05 Dec 2020 05:02 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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