Country
Year19901995200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017
VariableUnit
Environmental and resource productivityCO2 ProductivityProduction-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 20101.892.012.082.122.132.192.182.212.262.282.312.322.422.532.602.692.822.85....
Production-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes15.2415.7917.5517.7017.9217.9218.3818.3818.3418.4918.2718.2217.5917.2216.9416.5215.9016.00....
Production-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100Index, 2000=10077.5985.27100.00101.88104.27105.44109.56111.11112.76115.75116.52118.31116.25115.66115.48114.28111.53113.80....
Production-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions259.70285.40334.70341.00349.00352.90366.70371.90377.40387.40390.00396.00389.10387.10386.50382.50373.30380.90....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 2010..2.112.092.172.092.051.981.982.052.032.092.152.172.18............
Demand-based CO2 productivity, disposable income per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 2010..1.691.691.761.691.661.581.581.621.621.671.701.731.77............
Demand-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes..15.0617.3717.1418.1619.0920.1420.5420.3020.8320.2119.6719.6019.96............
Demand-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100Index, 2000=100..82.08100.0099.99107.11113.92121.49125.43125.63131.29129.98129.08130.68134.93............
Demand-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions..271.23330.45330.42353.94376.46401.47414.47415.16433.86429.53426.56431.83445.88............
Energy productivityEnergy productivity, GDP per unit of TPESUS Dollar, 20105 676.646 199.086 742.896 554.696 656.626 989.377 091.877 241.247 216.477 232.287 108.457 232.297 380.557 624.857 923.888 144.418 418.028 652.648 354.19..
Energy intensity, TPES per capitaTonnes of oil equivalent (toe)5.075.135.415.725.745.625.655.615.745.835.945.855.775.715.555.465.345.265.48..
Total primary energy supply, index 2000=100Index, 2000=10083.7889.91100.00106.99108.50107.47109.29110.07114.62118.55122.94123.31123.80124.49122.96122.69121.49121.54128.35..
Total primary energy supplyTonnes of oil equivalent (toe), Millions86.3892.70103.10110.30111.86110.79112.68113.48118.17122.22126.74127.13127.63128.35126.77126.49125.25125.30132.32..
Renewable energy supply, % TPESPercentage5.875.976.165.876.045.985.795.695.635.625.574.395.505.505.566.236.556.546.46..
Renewable electricity, % total electricity generationPercentage9.669.628.388.107.868.448.198.809.308.658.127.508.6110.4310.5913.2614.9113.6414.65..
Energy consumption in agriculture, % total energy consumptionPercentage2.302.332.312.302.553.143.073.202.982.862.842.832.862.802.842.802.812.93....
Energy consumption in services, % total energy consumptionPercentage6.146.667.247.168.078.598.588.638.688.878.859.219.118.948.868.869.109.64....
Energy consumption in industry, % total energy consumptionPercentage34.1033.8134.1934.7733.3931.1231.0130.8330.4230.4030.4429.8429.6429.4829.7530.4229.9129.52....
Energy consumption in transport, % total energy consumptionPercentage37.2637.0636.8736.2237.3037.0537.4637.5838.2638.2238.4538.6339.1739.5039.5439.2139.2540.00....
Energy consumption in other sectors, % total energy consumptionPercentage20.2020.1419.3819.5518.7020.1019.8919.7619.6619.6519.4219.4819.2219.2919.0118.7118.9317.91....
Non-energy material productivityNon-energy material productivity, GDP per unit of DMCUS dollars per kilogram, 20100.941.001.001.031.131.071.141.141.281.241.301.301.371.361.421.421.451.481.51
(E1.53
Biomass, % of DMCPercentage25.7129.3028.0427.8223.7529.2925.5628.1923.7225.9027.6425.6425.5225.3126.7224.9126.0225.8925.7625.65
Non-metallic minerals, % of DMCPercentage29.3228.5124.2723.8126.6924.7129.2526.7329.2129.8029.8033.5928.0528.2528.6728.7429.3129.7230.0830.37
Metals, % of DMCPercentage44.9742.1947.6948.3749.5646.0045.2045.0847.0744.3042.5740.7746.4346.4444.6146.3544.6744.3844.1643.98
Nitrogen balance per hectareKilograms20.4119.4420.7420.2221.4215.9316.1615.3416.4116.8615.9416.0816.4417.0418.6318.4119.1819.90....
Phosphorus balance per hectareKilograms1.021.121.341.341.390.770.860.720.800.870.660.490.660.800.810.770.991.06....
Municipal waste generated, kg per capitaKilograms per capita....
(E692.34
............611.01610.40609.80611.01598.87584.74571.35558.46560.71....
Municipal waste incinerated, % treated wastePercentage..................6.896.856.817.939.1110.0611.0312.029.39....
Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste Percentage..........30.34......36.8038.1639.4839.9942.2642.2442.2242.1942.00....
Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated wastePercentage..........69.66......56.3154.9953.7152.0848.6347.7046.7545.7848.61....
Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivityInformation on itemEnvironmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growthPercentage points..2.040.963.161.392.701.301.161.641.320.300.990.342.011.50..........
Contribution of natural capitalPercentage points..0.050.150.03-0.020.000.100.180.260.300.230.330.400.300.40..........
Adjustment for pollution abatementPercentage points..-0.45-0.15-0.24-0.06-0.07-0.28-0.07-0.13-0.22-0.110.05-0.010.12-0.03..........
Natural asset baseFreshwater resourcesTotal renewable freshwater per capitaCubic metres per capita..................................16 048.51....
Total freshwater abstraction per capitaCubic metres per capita..1 331.60..1 151.93......656.16......672.20625.77609.53716.46869.65824.89765.64696.92..
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total available renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E6.22
..
(E5.73
......
(E3.43
......
(E3.77
(E3.58
(E3.54
(E4.22
(E5.20
(E5.00
(E4.71
(E4.34
..
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total internal renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E6.22
..
(E5.73
......
(E3.43
......
(E3.77
(E3.58
(E3.54
(E4.22
(E5.20
(E5.00
(E4.71
(E4.34
..
Permanent surface water, % total surfaceInformation on itemPercentage..................................0.14....
Seasonal surface water, % total surface Information on itemPercentage..................................0.52....
Conversion of permanent water to not-water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Information on itemPercentage..................................12.73....
Conversion of permanent to seasonal water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Information on itemPercentage..................................12.69....
Conversion of not-water to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Information on itemPercentage..................................16.15....
Conversion of seasonal to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Information on itemPercentage..................................2.46....
Land resourcesNatural and semi-natural vegetated land, % totalInformation on itemPercentage............86.70....................87.04....
Bare land, % totalInformation on itemPercentage............4.74....................4.38....
Cropland, % totalInformation on itemPercentage............8.15....................8.16....
Artificial surfaces, % total Information on itemPercentage............0.14....................0.16....
Water, % totalInformation on itemPercentage............0.27....................0.26....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992Information on itemPercentage, 1992............0.83....................0.97....
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004Information on itemPercentage, 2004..................................0.20....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992Information on itemPercentage, 1992............0.36....................0.89....
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004Information on itemPercentage, 2004..................................0.60....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to cropland, % since 1992Information on itemPercentage, 1992............0.59....................0.66....
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to artificial surfaces, % since 1992Information on itemPercentage, 1992............0.03....................0.05....
Conversion from cropland to artificial surfaces, % since 1992Information on itemPercentage, 1992............0.11....................0.18....
Built up area, % total landInformation on itemPercentage0.12..0.14..........................0.15......
Built up area per capitaInformation on itemSquare metres544.97..544.58..........................497.64......
New built up area, % since 1990Information on itemPercentage....11.80..........................25.79......
New built up area, % since 2000Information on itemPercentage, 2000................................12.51......
Forest resourcesInformation on itemForests under sustainable management certification, % total forest areaPercentage....0.00
(E0.00
(E0.00
(E0.00
(E1.16
4.45
(E4.93
(E7.33
(E6.73
(E6.37
8.72
(E8.82
(E8.95
(E9.16
(E8.95
......
Wildlife resourcesThreatened mammal species, % total known speciesPercentage..................................27.11....
Threatened bird species, % total known speciesPercentage..................................16.84....
Threatened vascular plant species, % total known speciesPercentage..................................6.58....
Environmental dimension of quality of lifeExposure to air pollutionInformation on itemMean population exposure to PM2.5Micrograms per cubic metre....6.476.737.337.535.555.745.895.405.035.774.524.895.445.05..
(E5.24
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 micrograms/m3Percentage....4.402.9421.1514.100.370.980.860.160.561.550.200.221.090.24..
(E2.22
....
Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 micrograms/m3Percentage....0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00..
(E0.00
....
Mortality from exposure to PM2.5Per 1 000 000 inhabitants225.80207.23184.35........154.91........119.67..........127.28..
Welfare costs from exposure to PM2.5, GDP equivalentInformation on itemPercentage2.252.021.75........1.44........1.10..........1.15..
Access to drinking water and sewage treatmentPopulation with access to improved sanitation, % total populationPercentage....65.4565.4565.4565.4565.4566.2567.0567.8468.6469.4370.2371.0371.8272.6273.4274.21....
Population connected to public sewerage, % total populationPercentage......90.00....87.00....93.6093.0092.3092.6093.7094.0094.0092.5092.30
(E92.40
..
Economic opportunities and policy responsesTechnology and innovation: PatentsDevelopment of environment-related technologies, % all technologiesPercentage9.5510.667.998.287.988.8111.069.579.6410.0811.6312.6113.4912.6710.909.629.09......
Relative advantage in environment-related technologyRatio1.421.611.231.221.181.251.541.271.181.141.181.131.151.070.960.930.95......
Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwidePercentage1.021.271.131.130.991.121.371.101.020.960.970.900.800.740.660.650.61......
Development of environment-related technologies, inventions per capitaNumber4.586.098.718.748.269.4712.4210.7810.6710.7511.4011.6611.4511.019.648.746.97......
Technology and innovation: R&DEnvironmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&DPercentage3.11
(B1.19
2.952.94
(B2.90
3.483.461.822.533.052.984.213.943.544.033.813.793.48
(En3.57
..
Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDPPercentage0.04..0.03..0.04..0.12..0.11..0.11..................
Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&DPercentage..4.60..9.95..10.6012.4012.4214.6315.9513.7919.2720.2433.6433.4053.9330.4054.0633.1033.99
Energy public RD&D budget, % GDPPercentage..0.02..0.02..0.020.030.020.020.030.030.040.030.040.050.060.020.020.010.01
Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&DPercentage..51.82..60.82..54.4817.2622.9424.4523.2721.6052.238.7612.937.654.9026.5516.739.3619.50
International financial flows: Official Development AssistanceEnvironmentally related ODA, % total ODAPercentage
(E0.48
13.745.8715.448.3812.434.6810.906.467.214.8716.1918.2017.4517.1011.0211.0710.7217.75..
ODA - all sectors - biodiversity, % total ODAPercentage....2.571.410.900.030.050.842.453.632.476.617.057.358.154.863.124.747.93..
ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODAPercentage....1.320.240.410.230.001.410.794.281.6014.567.294.478.015.283.784.027.45..
ODA - all sectors - climate change adaptation, % total ODAPercentage........................0.0011.8611.947.876.308.1913.16..
ODA - all sectors - desertification, % total ODAPercentage....1.590.230.490.000.000.220.612.630.723.1010.333.276.552.932.013.155.35..
ODA - renewable energy sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.000.000.030.000.100.000.000.000.000.010.010.000.010.000.080.070.350.360.23..
ODA - water supply and sanitation sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage2.963.9510.004.731.995.281.750.311.850.191.342.957.058.725.887.735.775.794.38..
ODA - environment sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.592.695.191.681.421.480.021.730.613.142.131.453.253.754.434.501.791.330.73..
Net ODA provided, % GNIPercentage0.340.340.270.250.260.250.250.250.300.320.320.290.320.340.360.330.310.290.270.23
Environmental taxes and transfersEnvironmentally related taxes, % GDPPercentage..2.602.412.352.332.262.232.051.981.931.851.861.801.782.072.131.91......
Environmentally related taxes, % total tax revenuePercentage..9.237.918.117.817.567.366.866.726.526.857.207.036.797.597.77........
Energy related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..75.7473.2572.3071.3069.5169.5168.2968.0966.9367.1365.1564.2763.9667.2267.9563.00......
Road transport-related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..24.1026.0327.0128.0029.6329.5930.7230.9831.8531.5733.4033.8233.7730.3529.6834.53......
Petrol tax, USD per litreUS dollars per litre, 2010..0.390.370.330.320.310.300.290.280.280.270.260.250.250.240.240.230.230.23..
Petrol tax, % end-user pricePercentage..55.6946.4443.6944.4642.6239.0834.0229.6630.4026.2528.6129.0325.7025.5825.2625.1129.1031.77..
Diesel tax, USD per litreUS dollars per litre, 20100.330.410.370.330.320.310.300.290.280.280.270.260.250.250.240.240.230.230.23..
Diesel tax, % end-user pricePercentage52.7261.2245.9742.1544.2041.8238.1031.8028.3129.1723.9228.3529.8225.6825.4425.0224.6530.2933.58..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % energy related tax revenuePercentage....41.5141.2524.9743.4642.3043.2144.8145.5846.8843.6342.7643.5033.1530.8938.68......
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total tax revenuePercentage....2.412.421.392.282.162.022.062.002.172.061.941.901.701.631.691.661.58..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....95.1692.3488.5092.7988.9186.3386.9385.4090.5691.4691.7990.5899.4696.3399.6799.6799.09..
Fossil fuel production support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....4.797.6011.415.6411.0213.5812.9514.548.888.288.019.120.033.220.140.190.19..
Fossil fuel general services support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....0.060.060.091.560.080.090.130.060.560.260.200.300.520.450.190.140.72..
Petroleum support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....95.5295.6393.7595.0696.9097.2297.8298.1297.8598.3498.2295.7498.0294.9998.3998.1297.56..
Coal support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....2.192.373.153.041.381.220.810.681.110.380.272.870.063.280.180.190.57..
Gas support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....2.292.003.101.911.721.561.371.201.041.271.511.391.921.731.421.691.87..
Total fossil fuel support, % of total tax revenuePercentage....2.532.621.572.462.432.342.372.342.392.252.112.101.711.701.691.671.59..
Socio-economic contextReal GDP, Index 2000=100Index, 2000=10070.5382.66100.00104.00107.11111.39114.95118.21122.67127.16129.60132.26135.51140.78144.49148.19151.68155.96159.02
(E162.64
Value added in agriculture, % of total value addedPercentage3.463.693.844.313.173.363.142.962.392.532.462.362.442.412.442.382.542.612.98..
Value added in industry, % of total value addedPercentage30.1328.3725.9425.8326.3926.2126.7627.8027.7527.6328.8226.9328.1927.9226.7127.1925.2423.9424.84..
Value added in services, % of total value addedPercentage66.4167.9370.2269.8670.4570.4370.1069.2369.8669.8468.7270.7169.3669.6870.8570.4372.2273.4472.18..
Real GDP per capitaUS Dollar, 201028 772.2831 788.1236 461.3337 521.9838 232.2439 314.2540 057.1240 601.2341 449.3942 200.3042 213.9942 294.7742 585.0643 534.4544 013.8344 498.6044 916.3245 555.7545 819.36
(E46 240.15
Population density, inhabitants per km2Inhabitants2.202.342.462.492.522.542.582.612.662.712.762.812.862.902.952.993.03
(B3.07
....
Labour tax revenue, % total tax revenuePercentage49.0847.4442.2545.7543.9544.0844.5344.0841.8641.4042.7342.6743.7044.5544.3944.2346.3446.50
(E46.59
..
Labour tax revenue, % GDPPercentage13.7213.3512.7913.1513.0213.1513.4413.1712.2812.2011.4610.9111.0711.5411.9512.0112.6712.93
(E13.09
..
Legend:
BBreak
EEstimated value
nNational estimate
Data extracted on 14 Aug 2018 15:22 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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