Country
Year1990199520002005201020112012201320142015201620172018
VariableUnit
Environmental and resource productivityCO2 ProductivityProduction-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 20101.892.012.082.212.422.532.602.692.822.862.82....
Production-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes15.2415.7817.5518.3817.5917.2216.9416.5315.9015.9416.26....
Production-based CO2 emissions, index 2000=100Index, 2000=10077.6285.27100.00111.15116.29115.69115.51114.35111.57113.36117.27....
Production-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions259.70285.30334.60371.90389.10387.10386.50382.60373.30379.30392.40....
Demand-based CO2 productivity, GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 2010......1.972.112.182.142.302.502.55......
Demand-based CO2 productivity, disposable income per unit of energy-related CO2 emissionsUS dollars per kilogram, 2010......1.571.691.761.741.852.002.02......
Demand-based CO2 intensity, energy-related CO2 per capitaTonnes......20.6720.1720.0320.5719.3518.0217.92......
Demand-based CO2 emissionsTonnes, Millions......418.42446.21450.35469.37448.02423.10426.40......
Energy productivityEnergy productivity, GDP per unit of TPESUS Dollar, 20105 699.726 219.506 438.847 250.387 409.387 642.527 942.798 166.448 449.498 676.028 530.828 588.15..
Energy intensity, TPES per capitaTonnes of oil equivalent (toe)5.055.125.675.615.765.705.555.465.325.265.385.43..
Total primary energy supply, index 2000=100Index, 2000=10079.6885.58100.00104.97117.76118.61117.13116.84115.58115.75120.02122.73..
Total primary energy supplyTonnes of oil equivalent (toe), Millions86.1492.51108.11113.49127.30128.22126.63126.31124.95125.13129.75132.69..
Renewable energy supply, % TPESPercentage5.895.985.885.695.255.405.456.076.346.406.396.71..
Renewable electricity, % total electricity generationPercentage9.669.628.388.808.6010.3810.5113.1414.6213.3114.5115.59..
Energy consumption in agriculture, % total energy consumptionPercentage2.302.332.313.202.862.802.842.802.812.943.09....
Energy consumption in services, % total energy consumptionPercentage6.146.667.248.639.108.938.858.859.099.709.75....
Energy consumption in industry, % total energy consumptionPercentage34.1033.8134.1930.8329.6629.5329.8130.4729.9329.0228.09....
Energy consumption in transport, % total energy consumptionPercentage37.2637.0636.8737.5839.1639.4739.5139.1839.2540.3040.52....
Energy consumption in other sectors, % total energy consumptionPercentage20.2020.1419.3819.7619.2119.2819.0018.7018.9318.0218.57....
Non-energy material productivityNon-energy material productivity, GDP per unit of DMCUS dollars per kilogram, 20100.941.001.001.141.371.371.421.421.451.491.51
(E1.55
..
Biomass, % of DMCPercentage25.7129.3028.0428.1925.5225.3126.7224.9126.0225.8925.7625.65..
Non-metallic minerals, % of DMCPercentage29.3228.5124.2726.7328.0528.2528.6728.7429.3129.7230.0830.37..
Metals, % of DMCPercentage44.9742.1947.6945.0846.4346.4444.6146.3544.6744.3844.1643.98..
Nitrogen balance per hectareKilograms20.4119.4420.7415.3416.4417.0418.6318.4119.1819.90......
Phosphorus balance per hectareKilograms1.021.121.340.720.660.800.810.770.991.06......
Municipal waste generated, kg per capitaKilograms per capita....
(E692.34
..611.01598.87584.74571.35558.46560.71......
Municipal waste incinerated, % treated wastePercentage........7.939.1110.0611.0312.029.39......
Municipal waste recycled or composted, % treated waste Percentage........39.9942.2642.2442.2242.1942.00......
Municipal waste disposed to landfills, % treated wastePercentage........52.0848.6347.7046.7545.7848.61......
Environmentally adjusted multifactor productivityEnvironmentally adjusted multifactor productivity growthPercentage points..2.040.961.160.342.011.50............
Contribution of natural capitalPercentage points..0.050.150.180.400.300.40............
Adjustment for pollution abatementPercentage points..-0.45-0.15-0.07-0.010.12-0.03............
Natural asset baseFreshwater resourcesTotal renewable freshwater per capitaCubic metres per capita..................16 048.51......
Total freshwater abstraction per capitaCubic metres per capita..1 331.60..656.16625.77609.53716.46869.65824.89765.64696.92....
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total available renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E6.22
..
(E3.43
(E3.58
(E3.54
(E4.22
(E5.20
(E5.00
(E4.71
(E4.34
....
Water stress, total freshwater abstraction as % total internal renewable resourcesPercentage..
(E6.22
..
(E3.43
(E3.58
(E3.54
(E4.22
(E5.20
(E5.00
(E4.71
(E4.34
....
Permanent surface water, % total surfacePercentage..................0.14......
Seasonal surface water, % total surface Percentage..................0.52......
Conversion of permanent water to not-water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................12.73......
Conversion of permanent to seasonal water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................12.69......
Conversion of not-water to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................16.15......
Conversion of seasonal to permanent water surface, % permanent water, since 1984Percentage..................2.46......
Land resourcesNatural and semi-natural vegetated land, % totalPercentage..................87.04......
Bare land, % totalPercentage..................4.38......
Cropland, % totalPercentage..................8.16......
Artificial surfaces, % total Percentage..................0.16......
Water, % totalPercentage..................0.26......
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992Percentage, 1992..................0.97......
Loss of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004Percentage, 2004..................0.20......
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 1992Percentage, 1992..................0.89......
Gain of natural and semi-natural vegetated land, % since 2004Percentage, 2004..................0.60......
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to cropland, % since 1992Percentage, 1992..................0.66......
Conversion from natural and semi-natural land to artificial surfaces, % since 1992Percentage, 1992..................0.05......
Conversion from cropland to artificial surfaces, % since 1992Percentage, 1992..................0.18......
Built up area, % total landPercentage0.12..0.14..........0.15........
Built up area per capitaSquare metres544.97..544.58..........497.64........
New built up area, % since 1990Percentage....11.80..........25.79........
New built up area, % since 2000Percentage, 2000................12.51........
Forest resourcesForests under sustainable management certification, % total forest areaPercentage....0.004.458.72
(E8.82
(E8.95
(E9.16
(E8.95
........
Wildlife resourcesThreatened mammal species, % total known speciesPercentage..................27.11......
Threatened bird species, % total known speciesPercentage..................16.84......
Threatened vascular plant species, % total known speciesPercentage..................6.58......
Environmental dimension of quality of lifeExposure to environmental risksMean population exposure to PM2.5Micrograms per cubic metre10.3610.4210.7410.5310.5410.8810.409.849.369.208.548.52..
Percentage of population exposed to more than 10 micrograms/m3Percentage32.1832.2134.9634.6334.0837.5931.7429.7228.3527.3626.0025.98..
Percentage of population exposed to more than 35 micrograms/m3Percentage0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00..
Mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5Per 1 000 000 inhabitants300.07284.45263.71231.55217.45223.71209.10198.21193.41192.03181.94187.09..
Welfare costs of premature mortalities from exposure to ambient PM2.5, GDP equivalentPercentage3.072.852.572.212.052.101.961.861.811.791.691.74..
Mortality from exposure to ambient ozone3.884.194.134.356.196.837.378.099.1410.2211.1612.53..
Welfare costs of premature deaths from exposure to ambient ozone, GDP equivalent0.040.040.040.040.060.060.070.080.090.100.100.12..
Mortality from exposure to lead132.66126.72116.43102.9292.3791.0787.6285.7286.5087.3188.4690.09..
Welfare costs of premature deaths from exposure to lead, GDP equivalent1.361.271.130.980.870.860.820.800.810.810.820.84..
Access to drinking water and sewage treatmentPopulation with access to improved sanitation, % total populationPercentage....65.4566.2570.2371.0371.8272.6273.4274.21......
Population connected to public sewerage, % total populationPercentage........92.6093.7094.0094.0092.5092.30
(E92.40
....
Economic opportunities and policy responsesTechnology and innovation: PatentsDevelopment of environment-related technologies, % all technologiesPercentage8.8610.637.859.2313.3211.8510.609.739.498.62......
Relative advantage in environment-related technologyRatio1.351.651.251.321.221.091.021.011.031.07......
Development of environment-related technologies, % inventions worldwidePercentage1.211.631.391.320.960.850.780.770.790.81......
Development of environment-related technologies, inventions per capitaNumber5.407.7610.6413.3214.3513.1611.7411.1010.559.50......
Technology and innovation: R&DEnvironmentally related government R&D budget, % total government R&DPercentage
(B3.12
(B1.19
(B2.95
(B1.82
(B3.95
(B3.56
(B4.05
(B3.89
(B3.87
(B3.86
(B3.49
(EB4.68
(EB3.69
Environmentally related R&D expenditure, % GDPPercentage
(I0.04
..0.03....................
Renewable energy public RD&D budget, % total energy public RD&DPercentage..4.60..12.4220.2433.6433.4053.9330.4054.0633.1033.99..
Energy public RD&D budget, % GDPPercentage..0.02..0.020.030.040.050.060.020.020.010.01..
Fossil fuel public RD&D budget (excluding CCS), % total energy public RD&DPercentage..51.82..22.948.7612.937.654.9026.5516.739.3619.50..
International financial flows: Official Development AssistanceEnvironmentally related ODA, % total ODAPercentage
(E0.48
13.745.8710.9018.2017.4517.1011.0211.0710.7217.7516.10..
ODA - all sectors - biodiversity, % total ODAPercentage....2.570.847.057.358.154.863.124.747.939.11..
ODA - all sectors - climate change mitigation, % total ODAPercentage....1.321.417.294.478.015.283.784.027.458.62..
ODA - all sectors - climate change adaptation, % total ODAPercentage........0.0011.8611.947.876.308.1913.1613.47..
ODA - all sectors - desertification, % total ODAPercentage....1.590.2210.333.276.552.932.013.155.356.54..
ODA - renewable energy sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.000.000.030.000.010.000.080.070.350.360.230.82..
ODA - water supply and sanitation sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage2.963.9510.000.317.058.725.887.735.775.794.384.18..
ODA - environment sector, % total allocable ODAPercentage0.592.695.191.733.253.754.434.501.791.330.732.04..
Net ODA provided, % GNIPercentage0.340.340.270.250.320.340.360.330.310.290.270.23..
Environmental taxes and transfersEnvironmentally related taxes, % GDPPercentage..
(EI2.61
(EI2.41
(EI2.17
(EI1.86
(EI1.79
(EI2.07
(EI2.08
(EI1.91
(EI1.82
(EI1.77
....
Environmentally related taxes, % total tax revenuePercentage..
(EI9.23
(EI7.93
(EI7.24
(EI7.34
(EI6.90
(EI7.68
(EI7.63
(EI6.97
(EI6.51
(EI6.43
....
Energy related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..
(EI75.67
(EI73.15
(EI63.40
(EI60.94
(EI61.21
(EI64.57
(EI64.53
(EI60.90
(EI57.98
(EI57.97
....
Road transport-related tax revenue, % total environmental tax revenuePercentage..
(EI24.17
(EI26.12
(EI35.66
(EI37.23
(EI36.55
(EI33.02
(EI33.04
(EI36.65
(EI39.15
(EI39.28
....
Petrol tax, USD per litreUS dollars per litre, 2010..0.390.370.290.250.250.240.240.230.230.230.23..
Petrol end-user price, USD per litre..0.690.800.860.880.960.940.930.920.800.730.78..
Diesel tax, USD per litreUS dollars per litre, 20100.330.410.370.290.250.250.240.240.230.230.230.23..
Diesel end-user price, USD per litre0.630.680.800.930.850.950.950.940.930.770.690.75..
Mean feed-in tariff for solar PV electricity generation....0.000.000.350.440.400.340.280.230.230.23..
Mean feed-in tariff for wind electricity generation....0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00..
Fossil fuel consumption support, % energy related tax revenuePercentage....41.3243.9343.2944.8234.1733.1039.6043.8743.10....
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total tax revenuePercentage....2.392.021.941.901.701.631.691.651.60....
Fossil fuel consumption support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....95.1686.3391.7990.5899.4696.3399.6799.6799.09....
Fossil fuel production support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....4.7913.588.019.120.033.220.140.190.19....
Fossil fuel general services support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....0.060.090.200.300.520.450.190.140.72....
Petroleum support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....95.5297.2298.2295.7498.0294.9998.3998.1297.56....
Coal support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....2.191.220.272.870.063.280.180.190.57....
Gas support, % total fossil fuel supportPercentage....2.291.561.511.391.921.731.421.691.87....
Total fossil fuel support, % of total tax revenuePercentage....2.512.332.122.091.711.701.691.661.61....
Socio-economic contextReal GDP, Index 2000=100Index, 2000=10070.5382.66100.00118.21135.51140.78144.49148.19151.68155.96159.02
(E163.70
(E168.63
Value added in agriculture, % of total value addedPercentage3.463.693.842.962.442.412.442.382.542.612.98....
Value added in industry, % of total value addedPercentage30.1328.3725.9427.8028.1927.9226.7127.1925.2423.9424.84....
Value added in services, % of total value addedPercentage66.4167.9370.2269.2369.3669.6870.8570.4372.2273.4472.18....
Real GDP per capitaUS Dollar, 201028 810.2931 830.1136 509.5040 654.8642 641.3243 591.9644 071.9744 557.3844 975.6645 615.9345 879.89
(E46 605.03
(E47 385.23
Population density, inhabitants per km2Inhabitants2.202.342.462.612.862.902.952.993.033.073.12....
Labour tax revenue, % GDPPercentage13.8013.4212.8513.2211.0611.5511.9712.0212.6712.9412.60
(E12.44
..
Labour tax revenue, % total tax revenuePercentage49.0847.4442.2044.1043.7644.6244.4744.3546.4546.4245.65
(E44.87
..
Legend:
BBreak
EEstimated value
IIncomplete data
Data extracted on 23 Aug 2019 06:55 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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