Africa's Development Dynamics - Statistical Annex
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For more information about the Statistical Annex, please contact DEVEuropeMiddle-EastAfricaTeam@oecd.org.
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Data was obtained from various sources, including harmonised data sets of annual national data from reputable international institutions, as well as some indicators that were calculated by researchers working on the publication. The statistical annex will be updated regularly in order to incorporate the addition of more recent figures, and updates and corrections in external data sources.
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In addition to country-level data, aggregated figures are calculated for the following country groups:
- The five African Union regions (as defined by the Abuja Treaty)
(Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, and West Africa)
- World regions
(Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World)
- Resource-rich countries
Countries that obtain a significant fraction of their GDP from underground natural-resource extraction are referred to as “resource-rich”. These resource endowments can have major implications for economic, political, and social development. In this report, countries are identified as resource-rich based on whether, over the previous decade, the estimated contribution of the extraction of hydrocarbons, coal and minerals to economic output exceed 10% of GDP in at least five years.
- Income level (1)
The World Bank divides the countries of the world into four categories based on GNI per capita, using their Atlas Method: low-income countries, lower middle-income countries, upper middle-income countries, and high-income countries.
- Geographic access (2)
The report provides a breakdown between countries that are landlocked, countries that have a portion of coastline, and island nations. Gaining access to world trade can be complicated by a country’s access to the ocean or lack thereof, while island nations have been shown to have different development patterns than other coastal nations. In addition to this three-way breakdown of countries, this report provides data on countries deemed “Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC)” and “Small Island Developing States (SIDS)” by the UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS).
- Least-developed countries (2) The UN-OHRLLS classifies some countries as “Least Developed Countries (LDC)”. This categorisation of countries was officially established in 1971, by the UN General Assembly, and represents countries that face low levels of socio-economic development. Countries are designated as LDC countries based on income criteria, the health and education of their populations, and their economic vulnerability.
- Fragile States and Extremely fragile states (3)
The OECD studies fragility as a multi-dimensional concept of risks that could pose a critical challenge to the ability of countries to achieve their development aspirations, in particular the goals outlined by the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Based on the results of this research, presented in the OECD States of Fragility report, countries are categorised as being “fragile” or “extremely fragile”.
- Regional Economic Communities (4)
Partnerships of countries formed for the purposes of regional integration or co-operation that have economic or political significance and that are particularly relevant to an analysis of African economic performance are included here. This includes the 8 Regional Economic Communities (REC) recognised by the African Union, as well as other regional and international organisations, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), the European Union (EU) and the OECD that serve as benchmarks.

Please note that due to missing data, statistics for country groups in different years might not be calculated over the same set of countries.

Aggregated figures are generally sums or averages of national national figures for countries within each group. For statistics expressed as ratios between two indicators (such per capita figures, or percentages of working age populations), where possible aggregate values were calculated by taking the ratio of the aggregate sum for the numerator and the aggregate sum for the denominator. Where this was not possible, weighted or unweighted averages of national ratios within each grouping were calculated instead. For ratios expressed as % of GDP, means were generally weighted using national GDP in PPP dollars. For ratios expressed in terms of total population or in per capita terms, means were generally weighted using national populations. One notable exception were figures on public revenues and expenditures, which are expressed as a % of GDP, but for country groupings, unweighted averages were reported in order to remain consistent with reporting practices in other publications. Please see the list of indicators, descriptions and details for the aggregation methodology used for each indicator.

Notes
1. Please see http://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/378832-what-is-theworld-bank-atlas-method.
2. Please see https://www.un.org/ohrlls/ for more information.
3. Please see http://www.oecd.org/dac/states-of-fragility-fa5a6770-en.htm for more information.
4. Please see https://au.int/en/organs/recs for information.
Africa's Development Dynamics - Statistical AnnexContact person/organisation
For more information about the Statistical Annex, please contact DEVEuropeMiddle-EastAfricaTeam@oecd.org.
https://oe.cd/AFDD2021https://oe.cd/AFDD2021Source Periodicity
Data was obtained from various sources, including harmonised data sets of annual national data from reputable international institutions, as well as some indicators that were calculated by researchers working on the publication. The statistical annex will be updated regularly in order to incorporate the addition of more recent figures, and updates and corrections in external data sources.
https://oe.cd/AFDD2021https://oe.cd/AFDD2021Reference period
The figures presented here represent a snapshot of figures for the most recent years. More complete historic values for the same indicators can be found online through the OECD's online statistical portal at https://stats.oecd.org/ and clicking on "Development", followed by "Africa's Development Dynamics" on the menu. Figures are presented on a national basis only for African countries for which data is available.
https://oe.cd/AFDD2021https://oe.cd/AFDD2021
Date last updated
02-17-2021
https://oe.cd/AFDD-2021https://oe.cd/AFDD-2021
Item coverage
The Statistical Annex to the annual Africa's Development Dynamics (AFDD) report is a collection of indicators that were gathered and analysed while conducting the research that went into the report. These data are available online for free viewing or download at the website below, a bilingual website which links to the electronic version of the Africa's Development Dynamics book in both English and French.
https://oe.cd/AFDD2021https://oe.cd/AFDD2021
Key statistical concept
All indicators that were chosen for the annex provide national data figures for all or nearly all African countries, as well as most countries in the rest of the world. These choices were made in order to allow for both comparisons between African countries as well as comparisons with groups of similar countries outside of Africa that could serve as benchmarks. These data will serve to give context to the analyses presented in the report and allow readers to investigate the underlying data in more depth, and as time passes, for readers to investigate data that is more current than what is found in the report.
https://oe.cd/AFDD2021https://oe.cd/AFDD2021
Aggregation and consolidation
In addition to country-level data, aggregated figures are calculated for the following country groups:
- The five African Union regions (as defined by the Abuja Treaty)
(Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, and West Africa)
- World regions
(Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World)
- Resource-rich countries
Countries that obtain a significant fraction of their GDP from underground natural-resource extraction are referred to as “resource-rich”. These resource endowments can have major implications for economic, political, and social development. In this report, countries are identified as resource-rich based on whether, over the previous decade, the estimated contribution of the extraction of hydrocarbons, coal and minerals to economic output exceed 10% of GDP in at least five years.
- Income level (1)
The World Bank divides the countries of the world into four categories based on GNI per capita, using their Atlas Method: low-income countries, lower middle-income countries, upper middle-income countries, and high-income countries.
- Geographic access (2)
The report provides a breakdown between countries that are landlocked, countries that have a portion of coastline, and island nations. Gaining access to world trade can be complicated by a country’s access to the ocean or lack thereof, while island nations have been shown to have different development patterns than other coastal nations. In addition to this three-way breakdown of countries, this report provides data on countries deemed “Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC)” and “Small Island Developing States (SIDS)” by the UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS).
- Least-developed countries (2) The UN-OHRLLS classifies some countries as “Least Developed Countries (LDC)”. This categorisation of countries was officially established in 1971, by the UN General Assembly, and represents countries that face low levels of socio-economic development. Countries are designated as LDC countries based on income criteria, the health and education of their populations, and their economic vulnerability.
- Fragile States and Extremely fragile states (3)
The OECD studies fragility as a multi-dimensional concept of risks that could pose a critical challenge to the ability of countries to achieve their development aspirations, in particular the goals outlined by the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Based on the results of this research, presented in the OECD States of Fragility report, countries are categorised as being “fragile” or “extremely fragile”.
- Regional Economic Communities (4)
Partnerships of countries formed for the purposes of regional integration or co-operation that have economic or political significance and that are particularly relevant to an analysis of African economic performance are included here. This includes the 8 Regional Economic Communities (REC) recognised by the African Union, as well as other regional and international organisations, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), the European Union (EU) and the OECD that serve as benchmarks.

Please note that due to missing data, statistics for country groups in different years might not be calculated over the same set of countries.

Aggregated figures are generally sums or averages of national national figures for countries within each group. For statistics expressed as ratios between two indicators (such per capita figures, or percentages of working age populations), where possible aggregate values were calculated by taking the ratio of the aggregate sum for the numerator and the aggregate sum for the denominator. Where this was not possible, weighted or unweighted averages of national ratios within each grouping were calculated instead. For ratios expressed as % of GDP, means were generally weighted using national GDP in PPP dollars. For ratios expressed in terms of total population or in per capita terms, means were generally weighted using national populations. One notable exception were figures on public revenues and expenditures, which are expressed as a % of GDP, but for country groupings, unweighted averages were reported in order to remain consistent with reporting practices in other publications. Please see the list of indicators, descriptions and details for the aggregation methodology used for each indicator.

Notes
1. Please see http://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/378832-what-is-theworld-bank-atlas-method.
2. Please see https://www.un.org/ohrlls/ for more information.
3. Please see http://www.oecd.org/dac/states-of-fragility-fa5a6770-en.htm for more information.
4. Please see https://au.int/en/organs/recs for information.
Please click on this link to download a table showing the countries that belong to each country grouping.https://github.com/AfDDAnnex/AfDDDDAf2021/raw/main/AfDD_2021_Country_groupings.xlsx