Foreign Direct Investment BMD4 FDI aggregates
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Investment@oecd.org

More information can also be found on the OECD Investment statistics page:http://www.oecd.org/investment/statistics.htm

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Source used: OECD and IMF.

Quarterly and annual FDI aggregates data in this dataset are updated as of 10 October 2019.

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Breaks in series (indicated with a 'B' flag) were introduced were introduced in order to provide users with more complete historical series on FDI financial flows and FDI income flows.  Data used before the breaks in series correspond to unrevised BMD3 FDI aggregates except for:

- France (FDI income series), for which the whole data series is according to BMD4, and the breaks in series correspond to the inclusion of income on debt (interests) starting from 2012.
- Germany and Hungary, for which the whole data series is according to BMD4, and the breaks in series correspond to a different recording of transactions between fellow enterprises.
- Iceland (FDI income series) for which the breaks in series in 2012 correspond to the inclusion of income on debt (interests) and the breaks in series in 2013 correspond to the implementation of BMD4.  -  Netherlands (FDI positions series):  Note from the Central Bank of Netherlands: At the current moment there is a ‘break in series' between 2014 and 2015 in our FDI- and BoP figures excluding SPE's of around 700 bln euros as a result of a shift of around 250 businesses from the SPE-sector to the non-financial companies sector. This shift took place in 2018 after joint research and coordination with Statistics Netherlands and was part of the joint ‘Benchmark revision 2015'. At DNB we only revised our figures back to 2015. The old period (2014 and earlier) is not yet revised.

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In 2014, many countries implemented the latest international guidelines for compiling foreign direct investment (FDI) statistics:

OECD's Benchmark Definition of FDI, 4th edition (BMD4)

IMF's Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, 6th edition (BPM6)

The new OECD database for FDI statistics according to BMD4 is structured as followed:

FDI main aggregates - Summary
FDI statistics by partner country and by industry - Summary
FDI statistics by partner country and by industry - BMD4 and historic BMD3 series

FDI financial flows
FDI financial flows, main aggregates BMD4
FDI financial flows by partner country BMD4
FDI financial flows by industry BMD4

FDI income
FDI income, main aggregates BMD4
FDI income by partner country BMD4
FDI income by industry BMD4

FDI positions
FDI positions, main aggregates BMD4
FDI positions by partner country BMD4
FDI positions by industry BMD4

For more details on the database structure, please consult OECD database on FDI statistics according to BMD4 - Structure and content.

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FDI statistics cover all entities in an FDI relationship. An FDI relationship is established when an investor in one country acquires 10% or more of the voting power in a business enterprise in another country. The investor is also called a direct investor or a parent and the business enterprise is called a direct investment enterprise or an affiliate. The 10 percent criteria is used to establish that the direct investor has a significant degree of influence over the operations of the direct investment enterprise.

The FDI population includes affiliates that are directly and indirectly owned by the parent. In direct ownership, the parent owns the 10% or more voting power itself. In indirect ownership, the parent controls an affiliate that in turn owns 10 percent or more of the voting power in another enterprise.

The FDI population also includes enterprises that are not in a direct investment relationship themselves but have a direct investor in common. Called fellow enterprises, they are included because, even though there is no direct investment relationship between the two, any transactions between them likely resulted from the influence that their common direct investor has on both of their operations.

Foreign Direct Investment BMD4 FDI aggregatesContact person/organisation

Investment@oecd.org

More information can also be found on the OECD Investment statistics page:http://www.oecd.org/investment/statistics.htm

Data source(s) used

Source used: OECD and IMF.

Quarterly and annual FDI aggregates data in this dataset are updated as of 10 October 2019.

Reference period

Breaks in series (indicated with a 'B' flag) were introduced were introduced in order to provide users with more complete historical series on FDI financial flows and FDI income flows.  Data used before the breaks in series correspond to unrevised BMD3 FDI aggregates except for:

- France (FDI income series), for which the whole data series is according to BMD4, and the breaks in series correspond to the inclusion of income on debt (interests) starting from 2012.
- Germany and Hungary, for which the whole data series is according to BMD4, and the breaks in series correspond to a different recording of transactions between fellow enterprises.
- Iceland (FDI income series) for which the breaks in series in 2012 correspond to the inclusion of income on debt (interests) and the breaks in series in 2013 correspond to the implementation of BMD4.  -  Netherlands (FDI positions series):  Note from the Central Bank of Netherlands: At the current moment there is a ‘break in series' between 2014 and 2015 in our FDI- and BoP figures excluding SPE's of around 700 bln euros as a result of a shift of around 250 businesses from the SPE-sector to the non-financial companies sector. This shift took place in 2018 after joint research and coordination with Statistics Netherlands and was part of the joint ‘Benchmark revision 2015'. At DNB we only revised our figures back to 2015. The old period (2014 and earlier) is not yet revised.

Other data characteristics

In 2014, many countries implemented the latest international guidelines for compiling foreign direct investment (FDI) statistics:

OECD's Benchmark Definition of FDI, 4th edition (BMD4)

IMF's Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, 6th edition (BPM6)

The new OECD database for FDI statistics according to BMD4 is structured as followed:

FDI main aggregates - Summary
FDI statistics by partner country and by industry - Summary
FDI statistics by partner country and by industry - BMD4 and historic BMD3 series

FDI financial flows
FDI financial flows, main aggregates BMD4
FDI financial flows by partner country BMD4
FDI financial flows by industry BMD4

FDI income
FDI income, main aggregates BMD4
FDI income by partner country BMD4
FDI income by industry BMD4

FDI positions
FDI positions, main aggregates BMD4
FDI positions by partner country BMD4
FDI positions by industry BMD4

For more details on the database structure, please consult OECD database on FDI statistics according to BMD4 - Structure and content.

Statistical population

FDI statistics cover all entities in an FDI relationship. An FDI relationship is established when an investor in one country acquires 10% or more of the voting power in a business enterprise in another country. The investor is also called a direct investor or a parent and the business enterprise is called a direct investment enterprise or an affiliate. The 10 percent criteria is used to establish that the direct investor has a significant degree of influence over the operations of the direct investment enterprise.

The FDI population includes affiliates that are directly and indirectly owned by the parent. In direct ownership, the parent owns the 10% or more voting power itself. In indirect ownership, the parent controls an affiliate that in turn owns 10 percent or more of the voting power in another enterprise.

The FDI population also includes enterprises that are not in a direct investment relationship themselves but have a direct investor in common. Called fellow enterprises, they are included because, even though there is no direct investment relationship between the two, any transactions between them likely resulted from the influence that their common direct investor has on both of their operations.