Fossil Fuel Support - ZAF
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SOUTH AFRICA: GENERAL METADATA
Data documentation
General notes
The fiscal year in South Africa runs from 1 April to 31 March of the following year. Following OECD conventions, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period April 2005 to March 2006 are allocated to 2005.
The initial data were obtained from the National Treasury and the National Budgets (not the Provincial Budgets). For several estimates, data are taken from annual reports of companies such as Eskom, from other government organisations such as the South Africa Revenue Service SARS), and from other organisations working in the field.
Methodological note
A large part of support to fossil fuels in non-OECD countries (and in a few member countries such as Mexico) takes the form of price controls or regulations benefitting final consumers. In many cases, this occurs through the government mandating state-owned oil and gas companies to charge lower retail prices, thereby lowering the revenues these companies collect through sales of fuel. This often results in the government subsequently intervening to compensate state-owned oil and gas companies for the losses they incurred in the downstream sector due to the regulated prices, with this compensation taking many forms. Some governments choose, for example, to compensate national oil and gas companies through targeted tax concessions (e.g., VAT exemptions) or equity injections.
This inventory focusses on the direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels, including those benefitting national oil and gas companies. Estimates of the support directly conferred to final consumers by regulated prices are available from the International Energy Agency (IEA), which estimates these induced transfers as part of its annual "World Energy Outlook" publication. Readers are therefore advised not to add together the OECD and IEA estimates given the significant risk of overlap and double-counting this involves.
Producer Support Estimate
The fiscal regime applicable to oil, natural-gas, and mining companies in South Africa consists mostly of a corporate income tax, indirect taxes, and royalties. Additionally, oil, natural-gas, and coal-mining companies pay the indirect taxes paid by other sectors, including the regular VAT and the customs duties and import tariffs that are levied on purchased inputs.
Resident and non-resident companies are liable for corporation tax at a rate of 28 %. In addition, the government levies various withholding taxes including: on royalties paid to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on interest payable to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on dividends (at a rate of 15%), and on the disposal of immovable property (at a rate of 7.5% for a company). Finally, capital gains tax is payable at a rate of 18.65%, with an expected increase to 22.4% for the 2017 fiscal year.
The tenth schedule to the Income Tax Act of 1962 sets out specific provisions relating to the taxation of upstream oil and gas exploration and production. These measures include deductions for all expenditures and losses related to exploration and post exploration losses, as well as 100% of capital spend on exploration activities and 50% on post-exploration activities. Furthermore, dividends paid out of income relating to oil and gas activities are not liable to the 15% withholding tax described above.
Prior to 2010, South Africa’s oil, natural-gas, and mining companies did not have to pay royalties. The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act (MPRRA) of 2008 imposed royalties related to extractive activities, with the rate calculated as a function of gross sales and profit (specifically, earnings before interest and tax), and varying between 0.5% and 5% (for refined resources) and between 0.5% and 7% for non-refined resources). Exemptions apply for certain small producers, but these are also applicable to operators extracting non-energy minerals. Given the size of South Africa’s total mining sector, royalty concessions such as these lack the specificity required to be characterised as support measures for the purpose of the present inventory.


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OECD (2018), OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2018, Paris.

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Nov-17

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Annual

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Units
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Rand

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Indicator

PSE: Producer Support Estimate

GSSE: General Services Support Estimate

CSE: Consumer Support Estimate

Stage

EXTRACT: Extraction or mining stage

TRANS: Transportation of fossil fuels (e.g., through pipelines)

REFIN: Refining or processing stage

GENER: Use of fossil fuels in ectricity generation

INDUS: Use of fossil fuels in the industrial sector

END: Other end uses of fossil fuels

Statutory or Formal Incidence

consumption: Direct consumption

returns: Output Returns

income: Enterprise Income

inputs: Cost of Intermediate Inputs

labour: Labour

land: Land and natural resources

capital: Capital

knowledge: Knowledge

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Users of tax expenditure estimates should bear in mind that the Inventory records tax expenditures as estimates of revenue that is foregone due to a particular feature of the tax system that reduces or postpones tax relative to a jurisdiction’s benchmark tax system, to the benefit of fossil fuels. Hence, (i) tax expenditure estimates could increase either because of greater concessions, relative to the benchmark tax treatment, or because of a raise in the benchmark itself; (ii) international comparison of tax expenditures could be misleading, due to country-specific benchmark tax treatments.

Fossil Fuel Support - ZAFAbstract

SOUTH AFRICA: GENERAL METADATA
Data documentation
General notes
The fiscal year in South Africa runs from 1 April to 31 March of the following year. Following OECD conventions, data are allocated to the starting calendar year so that data covering the period April 2005 to March 2006 are allocated to 2005.
The initial data were obtained from the National Treasury and the National Budgets (not the Provincial Budgets). For several estimates, data are taken from annual reports of companies such as Eskom, from other government organisations such as the South Africa Revenue Service SARS), and from other organisations working in the field.
Methodological note
A large part of support to fossil fuels in non-OECD countries (and in a few member countries such as Mexico) takes the form of price controls or regulations benefitting final consumers. In many cases, this occurs through the government mandating state-owned oil and gas companies to charge lower retail prices, thereby lowering the revenues these companies collect through sales of fuel. This often results in the government subsequently intervening to compensate state-owned oil and gas companies for the losses they incurred in the downstream sector due to the regulated prices, with this compensation taking many forms. Some governments choose, for example, to compensate national oil and gas companies through targeted tax concessions (e.g., VAT exemptions) or equity injections.
This inventory focusses on the direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels, including those benefitting national oil and gas companies. Estimates of the support directly conferred to final consumers by regulated prices are available from the International Energy Agency (IEA), which estimates these induced transfers as part of its annual "World Energy Outlook" publication. Readers are therefore advised not to add together the OECD and IEA estimates given the significant risk of overlap and double-counting this involves.
Producer Support Estimate
The fiscal regime applicable to oil, natural-gas, and mining companies in South Africa consists mostly of a corporate income tax, indirect taxes, and royalties. Additionally, oil, natural-gas, and coal-mining companies pay the indirect taxes paid by other sectors, including the regular VAT and the customs duties and import tariffs that are levied on purchased inputs.
Resident and non-resident companies are liable for corporation tax at a rate of 28 %. In addition, the government levies various withholding taxes including: on royalties paid to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on interest payable to non-residents (at a rate of 15%), on dividends (at a rate of 15%), and on the disposal of immovable property (at a rate of 7.5% for a company). Finally, capital gains tax is payable at a rate of 18.65%, with an expected increase to 22.4% for the 2017 fiscal year.
The tenth schedule to the Income Tax Act of 1962 sets out specific provisions relating to the taxation of upstream oil and gas exploration and production. These measures include deductions for all expenditures and losses related to exploration and post exploration losses, as well as 100% of capital spend on exploration activities and 50% on post-exploration activities. Furthermore, dividends paid out of income relating to oil and gas activities are not liable to the 15% withholding tax described above.
Prior to 2010, South Africa’s oil, natural-gas, and mining companies did not have to pay royalties. The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act (MPRRA) of 2008 imposed royalties related to extractive activities, with the rate calculated as a function of gross sales and profit (specifically, earnings before interest and tax), and varying between 0.5% and 5% (for refined resources) and between 0.5% and 7% for non-refined resources). Exemptions apply for certain small producers, but these are also applicable to operators extracting non-energy minerals. Given the size of South Africa’s total mining sector, royalty concessions such as these lack the specificity required to be characterised as support measures for the purpose of the present inventory.


Country notehttp://stats.oecd.org/wbos/fileview2.aspx?IDFile=f44a8907-c2ae-4e69-a1b7-d0cf3088c82aCountry sourceshttp://stats.oecd.org/wbos/fileview2.aspx?IDFile=27c9b24c-ff8a-43e1-b460-5bcdf263b484
Contact person/organisation

ffs.contact@oecd.orgffs.contact@oecd.orgName of collection/source

OECD (2018), OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2018, Paris.

Unit of measure used

Rand

Power codeUnitsPeriodicity

Annual

Date last updated

Nov-17

Key statistical concept

Indicator

PSE: Producer Support Estimate

GSSE: General Services Support Estimate

CSE: Consumer Support Estimate

Stage

EXTRACT: Extraction or mining stage

TRANS: Transportation of fossil fuels (e.g., through pipelines)

REFIN: Refining or processing stage

GENER: Use of fossil fuels in ectricity generation

INDUS: Use of fossil fuels in the industrial sector

END: Other end uses of fossil fuels

Statutory or Formal Incidence

consumption: Direct consumption

returns: Output Returns

income: Enterprise Income

inputs: Cost of Intermediate Inputs

labour: Labour

land: Land and natural resources

capital: Capital

knowledge: Knowledge

Recommended uses and limitations

Users of tax expenditure estimates should bear in mind that the Inventory records tax expenditures as estimates of revenue that is foregone due to a particular feature of the tax system that reduces or postpones tax relative to a jurisdiction’s benchmark tax system, to the benefit of fossil fuels. Hence, (i) tax expenditure estimates could increase either because of greater concessions, relative to the benchmark tax treatment, or because of a raise in the benchmark itself; (ii) international comparison of tax expenditures could be misleading, due to country-specific benchmark tax treatments.

Other comments

OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2018http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264286061-en