Employment in fisheries, aquaculture and processing
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OECD statistics contact: TAD.contact@oecd.org

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The OECD-FAO data call opens in September (y) to collect (y-1) data; data are disseminated in March (y+1).

Click to expand Data source(s) used
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The employment data are jointly collected with FAO from Fisheries Ministries, National Statistics Offices and other institutions designated as an official data source.

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Click to expand Date last updated
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2022, September

Click to expand Other data characteristics
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Data on employment are collected by number of persons and reflect average annual employment.

For exceptions, please see the individual notes.

Click to expand Periodicity
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The data provided by countries and disseminated by OECD are annual data.

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Units
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Number
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Click to expand Classification(s) used
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Data on employment are collected by working domain, working status and sex.

The working domains are: Aquaculture, Marine Coastal Fishing, Marine Deep-Sea Fishing, Inland Waters Fishing, Marine Fishing, nei (Not Elsewhere Included), Subsistence, and Processing. Their definition is in line with the Unit Groups of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and it is the following:

Aquaculture: All aquaculturists and aquaculture workers (fish, shellfish and all type of aquaculture), operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas (ISCO-08 Code: 6221, 9216, 1312);

Marine Coastal Fishing: All commercial fishers operating inside their territorial waters for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, and all seagoing personnel on fishing craft. Fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 7541, 9216, 1312);

Marine Deep-Sea Fishing: All commercial fishers operating on high seas waters for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Fishers operating in domestic fishing craft landing in foreign ports, fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6223, 9216, 1312);

Marine Fishing, nei: All commercial fishers when it is unknown or not possible to disaggregate between operations inside territorial waters or on the high seas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, and all seagoing personnel on fishing craft. Fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 6223, 7541, 9216, 1312);

Inland waters fishing: All subsistence fishers operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, divers and all fishing conducted with a fishing craft (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 9216, 1312);

Subsistence: All subsistence fishers operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, divers and all fishing conducted with a fishing craft (ISCO-08 Code: 6340);

Processing: Fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer. Fish processing includes operations handled on board and/or on land to convert raw fish in a form which is acceptable for the consumer and that has a longer shelf life, e.g. preserving the harvested seafood with ice; preparing fresh fish by removing heads, fins, scales, bones and entrails; salting, drying, smoking seafood; shucking and packing fresh shellfish; canning seafood; producing fish paste products (surimi), boiled fish products, fermented products, fishmeal and fish oil; processing marine fats and oils; and freezing seafood (ISCO-08 Code: 7511, 8160).

The working status are: Full time, Part time, and Occasional. Their definition, provided in the CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistics, is the following:

Full-time workers receive at least 90% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend at least 90% of their working time in that occupation.

Part-time workers receive at least 30% but less than 90% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend at least 30% but less than 90% of their working time in that occupation.

Occasional workers receive under 30% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend under 30% of their working time in that occupation.

Click to expand Key statistical concept
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This dataset includes:

- all commercial, industrial and subsistence fishers, operating in freshwater, brackish water, and marine waters, catching and landing aquatic animals and plants, not only those operating from fishing vessels of all types, but also those operating land-based fishing gears and installations from the banks of rivers, lakes, canals, dams etc., and from beaches and shores which do not require the use of auxilliary boats

- people working on fish farms, hatcheries, and employed in shell fish culture operations

- the crews on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing fleets, and on auxilliary craft such as, fish carriers, and fish transport craft

- nationals, and others employed on nationally registered vessels landing their catches in foreign ports.

This dataset does not include:

- foreign fishers working on foreign vessels landing in national ports

- fishers on whaling vessels

- the crews of state-operated fishery patrol vessels, fishery protection vessels, hospital ships, etc.

The methodological reference document for fisheries and aquaculture statistics is the CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistics.

Click to expand Dissemination format(s)
Click to collapse Dissemination format(s)

Employment data are disseminated on-line in the 'Fisheries and Aquaculture statistics' domain of OECD.Stat and in the biennial paper publication 'OECD Review of Fisheries, Policies and Summary Statistics'

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Click to expand Recommended uses and limitations
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The CWP noted a number of problems in identifying and enumerating separately 'fishers' as primary producers among the economically active population. These problems arise largely from the seasonal availability of the various fishery resources compounded by the seasonal availability of more lucrative occupations. In many countries the number of people whose only source of income is from a year-round activity in fishing is small compared with the number of people entering the industry at peaks of activity in that industry, or slack periods in a more lucrative industry. For example, fishing is often of major importance in 'under-developed' regions where the other major industry may be tourism. (See FAO Fisheries Circular 929, Revision2). The fishing 'season' may be adapted so that it does not coincide with the peak tourist period from which earnings might well be higher.

Another problem is associated with subsistence fishing which is undertaken on a full-time, part-time, or occasional basis in many developed or developing communities as part of the occupation of the economically-active populations. However, people who are too young, too old to be normally included in the economically active population may be involved in subsistence fishing. These issues are further complicated where subsistence fishing merges with recreational fishing. For example, sports fishers and people owning and operating pleasure craft might try to offset their capital expenditure and running costs through the sale of fish caught during trips of such recreational craft.

Employment in fisheries, aquaculture and processingContact person/organisation

OECD statistics contact: TAD.contact@oecd.org

Data source(s) used

The employment data are jointly collected with FAO from Fisheries Ministries, National Statistics Offices and other institutions designated as an official data source.

Date last input received

The OECD-FAO data call opens in September (y) to collect (y-1) data; data are disseminated in March (y+1).

Unit of measure usedNumberPower codeUnitsPeriodicity

The data provided by countries and disseminated by OECD are annual data.

Date last updated

2022, September

Other data characteristics

Data on employment are collected by number of persons and reflect average annual employment.

For exceptions, please see the individual notes.

Statistical population

The statistical population is the set of countries participating in the work of the OECD Committee for Fisheries (COFI), i.e. the OECD members plus some partners economies.

In order to facilitate analysis and comparisons over time, historical data for OECD members have been provided over as long a period as possible, often even before a country became a member of the Organisation.

Information on the membership dates of all OECD countries can be found at OECD Ratification Dates.

OECD Ratification Dateshttp://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecd-member-countries.htm
Key statistical concept

This dataset includes:

- all commercial, industrial and subsistence fishers, operating in freshwater, brackish water, and marine waters, catching and landing aquatic animals and plants, not only those operating from fishing vessels of all types, but also those operating land-based fishing gears and installations from the banks of rivers, lakes, canals, dams etc., and from beaches and shores which do not require the use of auxilliary boats

- people working on fish farms, hatcheries, and employed in shell fish culture operations

- the crews on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing fleets, and on auxilliary craft such as, fish carriers, and fish transport craft

- nationals, and others employed on nationally registered vessels landing their catches in foreign ports.

This dataset does not include:

- foreign fishers working on foreign vessels landing in national ports

- fishers on whaling vessels

- the crews of state-operated fishery patrol vessels, fishery protection vessels, hospital ships, etc.

The methodological reference document for fisheries and aquaculture statistics is the CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistics.

Definition of fishershttps://www.fao.org/cwp-on-fishery-statistics/handbook/capture-fisheries-statistics/fishers/en/CWP Handbook of Fishery Statisticshttp://www.fao.org/cwp-on-fishery-statistics/handbook/en/
Classification(s) used

Data on employment are collected by working domain, working status and sex.

The working domains are: Aquaculture, Marine Coastal Fishing, Marine Deep-Sea Fishing, Inland Waters Fishing, Marine Fishing, nei (Not Elsewhere Included), Subsistence, and Processing. Their definition is in line with the Unit Groups of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and it is the following:

Aquaculture: All aquaculturists and aquaculture workers (fish, shellfish and all type of aquaculture), operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas (ISCO-08 Code: 6221, 9216, 1312);

Marine Coastal Fishing: All commercial fishers operating inside their territorial waters for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, and all seagoing personnel on fishing craft. Fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 7541, 9216, 1312);

Marine Deep-Sea Fishing: All commercial fishers operating on high seas waters for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Fishers operating in domestic fishing craft landing in foreign ports, fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6223, 9216, 1312);

Marine Fishing, nei: All commercial fishers when it is unknown or not possible to disaggregate between operations inside territorial waters or on the high seas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, and all seagoing personnel on fishing craft. Fishers employed on fish factory ships, motherships to fishing expeditions and on auxiliary vessels, such as fish carriers and fish transport craft, should also be included (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 6223, 7541, 9216, 1312);

Inland waters fishing: All subsistence fishers operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, divers and all fishing conducted with a fishing craft (ISCO-08 Code: 6222, 9216, 1312);

Subsistence: All subsistence fishers operating in freshwater, brackishwater and marine areas for catching and landing all aquatic animals and plants (except whales). Including all foot or shore based fishers, shellfish gatherers, divers and all fishing conducted with a fishing craft (ISCO-08 Code: 6340);

Processing: Fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer. Fish processing includes operations handled on board and/or on land to convert raw fish in a form which is acceptable for the consumer and that has a longer shelf life, e.g. preserving the harvested seafood with ice; preparing fresh fish by removing heads, fins, scales, bones and entrails; salting, drying, smoking seafood; shucking and packing fresh shellfish; canning seafood; producing fish paste products (surimi), boiled fish products, fermented products, fishmeal and fish oil; processing marine fats and oils; and freezing seafood (ISCO-08 Code: 7511, 8160).

The working status are: Full time, Part time, and Occasional. Their definition, provided in the CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistics, is the following:

Full-time workers receive at least 90% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend at least 90% of their working time in that occupation.

Part-time workers receive at least 30% but less than 90% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend at least 30% but less than 90% of their working time in that occupation.

Occasional workers receive under 30% of their livelihood from their occupation, or spend under 30% of their working time in that occupation.

Definition of fishershttps://www.fao.org/cwp-on-fishery-statistics/handbook/capture-fisheries-statistics/fishers/en/ILO Unit Groups of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08)http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/index.htm
Dissemination format(s)

Employment data are disseminated on-line in the 'Fisheries and Aquaculture statistics' domain of OECD.Stat and in the biennial paper publication 'OECD Review of Fisheries, Policies and Summary Statistics'

Recommended uses and limitations

The CWP noted a number of problems in identifying and enumerating separately 'fishers' as primary producers among the economically active population. These problems arise largely from the seasonal availability of the various fishery resources compounded by the seasonal availability of more lucrative occupations. In many countries the number of people whose only source of income is from a year-round activity in fishing is small compared with the number of people entering the industry at peaks of activity in that industry, or slack periods in a more lucrative industry. For example, fishing is often of major importance in 'under-developed' regions where the other major industry may be tourism. (See FAO Fisheries Circular 929, Revision2). The fishing 'season' may be adapted so that it does not coincide with the peak tourist period from which earnings might well be higher.

Another problem is associated with subsistence fishing which is undertaken on a full-time, part-time, or occasional basis in many developed or developing communities as part of the occupation of the economically-active populations. However, people who are too young, too old to be normally included in the economically active population may be involved in subsistence fishing. These issues are further complicated where subsistence fishing merges with recreational fishing. For example, sports fishers and people owning and operating pleasure craft might try to offset their capital expenditure and running costs through the sale of fish caught during trips of such recreational craft.