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French Equivalent: Emploi – Eurostat

Employment is one of the main variable groups covered by structural business statistics. The two main measures used are:

— the number of persons employed and
— the number of employees.

More complex measures are sometimes produced by measuring the number of hours worked or by conversion into full-time equivalent units. In addition some particular categories of employment are measured, such as part-time employment, female employment, self-employment, apprentices, homeworkers and unpaid employment (unpaid family workers and working proprietors).

The Community Labour Force Survey defines employment (in accordance with the International Labour Office) as follows:

Persons in employment are those, aged 15 years and over and living in private households, who during the reference week did any work for pay or profit for at least one hour, or were not working but had jobs from which they were temporarily absent. Family workers are also included

The European System of Accounts (ESA) defines employment as covering both employees and self-employed persons, who are engaged in some productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the system.

1. Employees:
Employees are defined as all persons who, by agreement, work for another resident institutional unit and receive a remuneration. An employer-employee relationship exists when there is an agreement, which may be formal or informal, between an enterprise and a person, normally entered into voluntarily by both parties, whereby the person works for the enterprise in return for remuneration in cash or in kind.
Note: Employees corresponds to the International Labour Office definition of ‘paid employment’.

2. Self-employed persons:
Self-employed persons are defined as persons who are the sole owners, or joint owners, of the unincorporated enterprises in which they work, excluding those unincorporated enterprises that are classified as quasi-corporations. Self-employed persons are classified here if they are not also in a paid employment which constitutes their principal activity: in that latter case they are classified under employees. Self-employed persons also include the following categories: unpaid family workers, outworkers and workers engaged in production undertaken entirely for their own final consumption or own capital formation, either individually or collectively.

Source Publication:
The European Union Labour Force Survey, Methods and Definitions, Eurostat, 1996, ESA 11.11-11.16 and Eurostat

Cross References:
Employment – ILO
Employment (establishment surveys)

Version Indicator: Eurostat

Statistical Theme: Labour statistics - Labour force statistics

Created on Tuesday, September 25, 2001

Last updated on Monday, July 29, 2002