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Patent office
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Year1990199520002005201020152016201720182019
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Technology domain
All technologies (total patents)25 50635 30688 76134 94534 18236 66139 87540 86741 63440 484
Hide subtree Environment-related technologies1 6712 5295 3152 4704 1073 2563 4413 6593 5893 163
Environment-related technologiesHide subtree Environmental management1 1531 6853 0331 5372 2881 4421 5341 8481 8231 527
Environmental managementHide subtree Air pollution abatement4106061 159559928429477567522392
Air pollution abatementEmissions abatement from stationary sources (e.g. SOx, NOx, PM emissions from combustion plants)128210328165399161169193220140
Emissions abatement from mobile sources (e.g. NOx, CO, HC, PM emissions from motor vehicles)178215450208275128144179139120
Air pollution abatement - Not elsewhere classified104181381186254140164195163132
Hide subtree Water pollution abatement4024991 024559763509541629672528
Water pollution abatementWater and wastewater treatment360471983544740500527612655518
Fertilizers from wastewater45107815773
Oil spill and pollutant clean-up3823318158910107
Hide subtree Waste management319537759400551468472588596536
Waste managementSolid waste collection38687672545859455734
Material recovery, recycling and re-use125235330143216191227278237235
Fertilizers from waste295796536482709210293
Incineration and energy recovery416910837613828397770
Waste management – Not elsewhere classified86108149951569988134123104
Soil remediation20418010261724301437
Environmental monitoring22119201920341934
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation9961 6353 6461 6243 1692 5322 6512 8252 6982 456
Climate change mitigationHide subtree Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)3582254134151190258266178154
Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)Energy efficient computing5193815253971523655
Energy efficiency in communication networks306321611912615118721414299
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distribution3355941 8198582 3721 6661 5951 9451 8811 616
Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distributionHide subtree Renewable energy generation972125103491 156684685673747702
Renewable energy generationWind energy12301299128711585131155114
Solar thermal energy3266745426611311591106122
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy4263195128404329347283393372
Solar thermal-PV hybrids..710513301318184
Geothermal energy1513418959812
Marine energy, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient3204038985567883944
Hydro energy7214929703353532834
Hide subtree Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil origin315613398431248194263224204
Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil originBiofuels, e.g. bio-diesel15308162287168132160112117
Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel16265236144806210311287
Hide subtree Nuclear energy3831778316431985917
Nuclear energyNuclear fusion reactors3419276244925885410
Nuclear fission reactors41250271561057
Hide subtree Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)2559108441706854739627
Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)Technologies for improved output efficiency (combined heat and power, combined cycles, etc.)182964261064331395318
Technologies for improved input efficiency (efficient combustion or heat usage)730441864252334439
Hide subtree Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution10156015495469495666
Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distributionSuperconducting electric elements or equipment75354173324
Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector....4..211737261726
Not elsewhere classified3102111273029203736
Hide subtree Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)133214915320466494480722606546
Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)Hide subtree Energy storage89141494120221268294367357341
Energy storageBatteries7411740083151213226274272246
Capacitors38336141317201420
Mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheels or pressurised fluids12239271123454240
Thermal energy storage11143822293128282935
Hydrogen technology1412837112512179151136101
High-voltage direct current transmission211222272..
Fuel cells2860337127118103105197111104
Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions171624695482679354
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste management191353496228362291277369385326
Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste managementWastewater treatment489015597162889112112298
Hide subtree Solid waste management138246319121185182169219227195
Solid waste managementWaste collection, transportation, transfer or storage1225....2222
Waste processing or separation....21133294
Landfill technologies aiming to mitigate methane emissions653..111441
Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse11335725214113343234
Hide subtree Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies12020625591162137150177180154
Reuse, recycling or recovery technologiesMechanical processing of waste for the recovery of materials, e.g. crushing, shredding, separation or disassembly91629315971086
Waste management of vehicles....................
Construction or demolition [C&D] waste1..4122411..
Glass recycling1323111....2
Plastics and rubber recycling22598526332516392433
Paper recycling1531122869182218
Disintegrating fibre-containing textile articles to obtain fibres for re-use..21..............
Recovery of fats, fatty oils, fatty acids or other fatty substances, e.g. lanolin or waxes3377125612
Recycling of wood or furniture waste..1222..........
Packaging reuse or recycling, e.g. of multilayer packaging21292889926142423
Recycling of waste of electrical or electronic equipment (WEEE)53315211..12
Recycling of batteries or fuel cells1552..383146
Use of waste materials as fillers for mortars or concrete42547736867873858652
Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation5172210152117293633
Hide subtree Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gases112096422479712610010568
Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gasesCapture or disposal of nitrous oxide (N2O)15126832872
Capture or disposal of methane (CH4)1..942051412106
Capture or disposal of perfluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)1..20....1....1..
Capture or disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2)815553221988110808760
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportation175266539303467325406498523409
Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportationHide subtree Road transport143208366214306177223274272231
Road transportConventional vehicles (based on internal combustion engine)112152240981295571895066
Hybrid vehicles4102340301220291314
Electric vehicles2036785813099113146186141
Fuel efficiency-improving vehicle design (common to all road vehicles)7102518171119102310
Rail transport49121017152115105
Maritime or waterways transport9145515141619272510
Aeronautics or air transport14206529585566958866
Hide subtree Enabling technologies in transport51541357262778712897
Enabling technologies in transportElectric vehicle charging51323226247677211185
Application of hydrogen technology to transportation, e.g. using fuel cells..21813101510151712
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildings100175406198476415585387407385
Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildingsIntegration of renewable energy sources in buildings1626584715312013192150130
Hide subtree Energy efficiency in buildings75121291131276233384230212205
Energy efficiency in buildingsEnergy efficient lighting9166844506491503356
Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]3764965810472127848769
Energy efficiency in home appliances16153514352039382118
Energy efficient elevators, escalators and moving walkways, e.g. energy saving or recuperation technologies........3131..1
End-user side132692158476124577161
Architectural or constructional elements improving the thermal performance of buildings41216..4891075
Enabling technologies in buildings5164120435461553845
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goods3325261 1115421 200836801872940781
Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goodsHide subtree Technologies related to metal processing120193269143175167185205156124
Technologies related to metal processingReduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions174147263476787
Process efficiency103152222117141160179198148117
Hide subtree Technologies relating to chemical industry56103227108365197126190188161
Technologies relating to chemical industryProcess efficiency in chemical industry252911861170102568511269
Feedstock22527934774839764767
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, e.g. CO2342212912828222813
Improvements relating to chlorine production1..3..8..........
Improvements relating to adipic acid or caprolactam production....1..............
Improvements relating to fluorochloro hydrocarbon, e.g. chlorodifluoromethane [HCFC-22] production....................
Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals51841191937112
Hide subtree Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry101335621596047465543
Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industryBio-feedstock8621381365239423539
Ethylene production27142423884204
Hide subtree Technologies relating to the processing of minerals32396629572839304134
Technologies relating to the processing of mineralsProduction of cement972210471324293116
Production or processing of lime..871213..3..
Glass production152232165119148
Production of ceramic materials or ceramic elements8252333..310
Hide subtree Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries2731612970102107128212142
Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industriesUsing renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping5531494248
Measures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses5..3..6101141313
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture111526132557666214787
Land use policy measures........11..2....
Afforestation or reforestation..211111......
Livestock or poultry management................1..
Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming1..21926472
Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking592613242219544032
Technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products59107292133215190135142180163
Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications4102020502251423031
Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to GHG emissions mitigation24301411810970111897883
Hide subtree Climate change adaptation technologies6301 2063 2812 1492 8861 9892 8722 7972 8012 595
Climate change adaptation technologiesHide subtree Adaptation at coastal zones or river basin5814516210151112
Adaptation at coastal zones or river basinHard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters3672313456
Dune restoration or creation; cliff stabilisation............1......
Artificial reefs or seaweed; restoration or protection of coral reefs..1....1012121
Flood prevention; flood or storm water management21723..1342
Controlling, monitoring or forecasting......1....37..3
Hide subtree Water resource management76140217204398166226244255229
Water resource managementHide subtree Demand-side technologies (water conservation)37831018623688135146151125
Demand-side technologies (water conservation)Indoor water conservation8372022321839384833
Irrigation water conservation182264471315377689383
Water conservation in thermoelectric power production1124171773171940109
Hide subtree Supply-side technologies (water availability)3957116118162789198104104
Supply-side technologies (water availability)Water desalination6124629582029203334
Water filtration; Water and wastewater treatment25164011371924282620
Water collection (rain, surface and ground-water)7242542522826383436
Water storage and distribution..2226121110111014
Protecting water resources133103..211..
Hide subtree Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation21336030263338412924
Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operationExtreme weather resilient electric power supply systems124235..23..
Structural elements or technology for improving thermal insulation51621..58111878
Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies8921786176124
In transportation446761191359
Planning or developing urban green infrastructure32814431223
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary production64135300196291169222192293201
Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary productionIn agriculture4289229147238113158135198136
Ecological corridors or buffer zones2..32......2....
In food processing or handling, e.g. food conservation8202812171818182414
In livestock or poultry............1....1
In fisheries management12264035363845377150
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather144274954606619536765800715685
Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weatherAir quality improvement or preservation24455552833745423757
Against vector-borne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change118227895552534488717745676626
Hide subtree Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change102711456160105206135134177
Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate changeInformation and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change, e.g. for weather forecasting or climate simulation101710951156102194128129168
Assessment of water resources..1054339633
Monitoring or fighting invasive species......11..3126
Hide subtree Sustainable ocean economy161237517306536328408471449381
Sustainable ocean economyHide subtree Ocean renewable energy generation522494211263821057283
Ocean renewable energy generationOffshore wind energy22741158123033
Offshore solar energy........3164..3
Tide, wave, current and other marine energy3204238985768894247
Hide subtree Ocean pollution abatement41335231392127412416
Ocean pollution abatementBallast water treatment14621137102474
Oil spill (and other floating debris) prevention and cleanup40294610261417171712
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation in maritime transport91455914162127188
Climate change mitigation in maritime transportImproved vessel design9124665471462
Fuel-efficient propulsion or fuel substitution..2939121413126
Climate change mitigation and adaptation in fishing, aquaculture and aquafarming13264036373946377551
Desalination of sea water6124629582029203334
Climate change adaptation in coastal zones71419819710181513
Data extracted on 25 Jan 2022 04:41 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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