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Family sizeTwo and greater
VariableInformation on item
Inventor country
UnitNumber
Year196019701980199020002005201020152020
Technology domain
All technologies (total patents)12 304.83320 365.66764 941.683114 817.9223 715.05267 347.534264 658.107289 035292 391.766
Hide subtree Environment-related technologies6551 144.55 553.758 247.46716 811.83323 053.00535 648.84835 988.38332 598.921
Environment-related technologiesHide subtree Climate change mitigation516793.53 888.255 218.38312 087.41717 150.15530 052.33429 879.6527 664.755
Climate change mitigationHide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste management33.577329.5700.333975.5831 077.251 232.4671 144.1671 764.705
Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste managementWastewater treatment3.543143.5209291.833358.833467.867366.333281.417
Hide subtree Solid waste management3034187486.5648.75682.083710.1711.3331 253.288
Solid waste managementWaste collection, transportation, transfer or storage......610913415
Waste processing or separation..12239101344.8
Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse53306384.574.572.16781.66788.5
Landfill technologies aiming to mitigate methane emissions......81139109
Hide subtree Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies1629140395.5525.25573.583578.65951 102.288
Reuse, recycling or recovery technologiesMechanical processing of waste for the recovery of materials, e.g. crushing, shredding, separation or disassembly42183955.546432379.5
Construction or demolition [C&D] waste....3984.56.553
Waste management of vehicles......131....2
Glass recycling..318822.515.559
Plastics and rubber recycling3639124229.5209.333146.667153.5478.788
Recycling of wood or furniture waste........40.53.5212
Recovery of fats, fatty oils, fatty acids or other fatty substances, e.g. lanolin or waxes....231315252318
Disintegrating fibre-containing textile articles to obtain fibres for re-use..1........317
Paper recycling212471.53643424730.5
Packaging reuse or recycling, e.g. of multilayer packaging1312425846.537.33352.667209.5
Recycling of waste of electrical or electronic equipment (WEEE)..2292630.5142917
Use of waste materials as fillers for mortars or concrete61252120137.75210.75248.433246.167228.667
Recycling of batteries or fuel cells....6119.51440.66742.667122.833
Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation....322.8335250.33371.594276.321
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distribution2412831 485.51 560.3334 513.6677 151.31715 838.21212 765.12612 517.45
Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distributionHide subtree Renewable energy generation915548285910.1671 777.4177 043.0054 130.82 888.417
Renewable energy generationWind energy1..60.528.5185372.8331 672.867974.833937.667
Solar thermal energy11257.558148.52681 112.75454.917228.667
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy42156.5170577.51 100.754 420.8052 713.4171 637.583
Solar thermal-PV hybrids....311323.582.91756.512
Geothermal energy....24653810149.554.167
Marine energy, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient..1321432.5107.667301.633191.5122
Hydro energy4113929.540.667111.667269.933201.5124.5
Hide subtree Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil origin..213276180.833406.9331 103.707672.583469
Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil originFuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel..1644883199436.75296.583247.333
Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel..27936121.833287.767907.707518.583300.5
Hide subtree Nuclear energy172125239313181217.833396.5333.5288.75
Nuclear energyNuclear fusion reactors73134523.5496765.567
Nuclear fission reactors158120221263151.5160.833328.5253199.25
Hide subtree Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)11491106225263.833549.067349.833220.833
Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)Technologies for improved output efficiency (combined heat and power, combined cycles, etc.)..24960131.333176342.15255166
Technologies for improved input efficiency (efficient combustion or heat usage)1124251104.66798.833263.75101.83369.833
Hide subtree Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution3133311588.5125.75255.667307.167240.167
Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distributionSuperconducting electric elements or equipment..11239842.572.08366.1677651
Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector........191786.167118.5115.667
Not elsewhere classified3210172741.667111.833126.66785.5
Hide subtree Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)57113464.5679.3332 999.6674 497.557 067.37 414.2438 750.783
Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)Hide subtree Energy storage3160337469.3331 701.1672 219.5835 056.9835 579.3266 540.567
Energy storageCapacitors..24.544171.5277.833487.267329.76796.5
Batteries3052267.5399.3331 525.51 896.4174 542.0175 097.066 184.067
Thermal energy storage12523970128.667203285196.5
Mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheels or pressurised fluids..414828.66729122.36711597
Hydrogen technology6253.540199435526.833561.5821.55
Fuel cells1324781711 265.6672 137.31 579.651 361.5831 432.233
High-voltage direct current transmission..9421541666.536.5
Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions..214421.567.5226.083247.333208.667
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)2427138707.6671 250.3711 885.452 484.5262 208.3
Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)Energy efficient computing....448228.167444.75727.65979.7788.483
Energy efficiency in communication networks242399507.5870.4551 286.9671 645.4931 464.983
Hide subtree Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gases8231.570.75183.333250.6496.6470.167406.667
Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gasesCapture or disposal of methane (CH4)1..711.667725.544.559.16760.5
Capture or disposal of nitrous oxide (N2O)....36.6674236.551.26739.534.667
Capture or disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2)6225.550.083103.5178.833419.333395321.667
Capture or disposal of perfluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)1....84525.2671719.525
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportation791127951 107.52 839.1674 354.0177 382.3838 4956 750.5
Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportationHide subtree Road transport6581709.5940.52 337.8333 417.5176 016.956 588.755 135
Road transportConventional vehicles (based on internal combustion engine)4767591778.51 653.3332 087.1832 555.73 029.3331 272.833
Hybrid vehicles1..2326332617832.5847.5678.167
Electric vehicles151075113457.51 029.1672 825.9172 683.4173 188
Fuel efficiency-improving vehicle design (common to all road vehicles)3435.554153186.5447.667515.833424.667
Rail transport13516.522276971.573
Maritime or waterways transport3112.5143870.333121.667149.75108.75
Aeronautics or air transport102773.5134.5330.5662.6671 103.7671 528.51 208.5
Hide subtree Enabling technologies in transport3..627212.833372.51 160.1671 251.9171 838.333
Enabling technologies in transportElectric vehicle charging3..52460.5114.5993.333960.9171 519.583
Application of hydrogen technology to transportation, e.g. using fuel cells....13169.833269195.333299.5352.25
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildings3058.5429.5450.51 146.751 926.053 660.4673 2792 243.733
Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildingsIntegration of renewable energy sources in buildings....133.538131233.333887.4450.833357.833
Hide subtree Energy efficiency in buildings2847.5305372.5917.751 484.452 626.42 668.6671 766.983
Energy efficiency in buildingsEnergy efficient lighting14439.588218511.367856.183838.833457.083
Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]1234.5212.5173.5315488696.5735599.833
Energy efficient elevators, escalators and moving walkways, e.g. energy saving or recuperation technologies....4158.75125.56
Energy efficiency in home appliances..4182582.5166.667259.5243.333147.333
End-user side263787313.75329.333860.883929.5580.483
Architectural or constructional elements improving the thermal performance of buildings..68163740717049.333
Enabling technologies in buildings2594498227.433351.167261141.583
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goods150.52871 224.251 684.33 580.754 336.26 801.6397 079.3986 486.567
Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goodsHide subtree Technologies related to metal processing46.573265.75275.167391.5374.383498.4171 188.9171 358.75
Technologies related to metal processingReduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions88292462.529.66743.528.551.5
Process efficiency42.565244.75257.167352.5351.717481.9171 167.4171 327.25
Hide subtree Technologies relating to chemical industry84157567.5688.4671 181.9171 107.4171 477.5061 216.5811 219.633
Technologies relating to chemical industryProcess efficiency in chemical industry9116680208.5279.183452.283325.5307.417
Feedstock9748116.5131.167147.333220.083183.667255.667
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, e.g. CO2521915.3333367139.933135130.333
Improvements relating to chlorine production....11....82..
Improvements relating to adipic acid or caprolactam production............1.83312
Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals....1262019.541.6834147.667
Hide subtree Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry1126.51745.5187.167432.65206.667161
Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industryEthylene production..122.5730.55561.41747.83329
Bio-feedstock....19.51333.5151.833364.15159.167104
Hide subtree Technologies relating to the processing of minerals82360.5109183.667233.167300.933399.333203.583
Technologies relating to the processing of mineralsProduction of cement..310342743.16767.66779.5101
Production or processing of lime1133369.11014.5
Glass production61036.556136.667159.5205.333286.33375.75
Production of ceramic materials or ceramic elements1811151626.520.33319.515.333
Hide subtree Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries19583071146.333244.167322401
Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industriesMeasures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses..2549.583163.83323
Using renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping..11232326.1671830
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture....18102158.66795.5183.333255
Land use policy measures........1..1..1
Afforestation or reforestation....112.5....13
Livestock or poultry management..1......3113
Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking1622113553.66762.554.83388.5
Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming........21013135.333
Technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products1020190.5311.6671 2241 823.93 372.5332 978.5672 189.917
Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications....271974.16798.333256.567225.5130.683
Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to GHG emissions mitigation..647250477484.667496.167770.6671 038.167
Hide subtree Environmental management180.54792 530.54 4377 447.9179 420.910 030.58110 591.48 130.371
Environmental managementHide subtree Air pollution abatement932311 577.52 491.9174 634.55 873.5176 086.9216 689.4334 055.167
Air pollution abatementEmissions abatement from stationary sources (e.g. SOx, NOx, PM emissions from combustion plants)2653307.5669.25983.51 352.7831 637.21 449.31 047.833
Emissions abatement from mobile sources (e.g. NOx, CO, HC, PM emissions from motor vehicles)401311 030.51 6173 4143 9873 900.8384 474.62 073.5
Air pollution abatement - Not elsewhere classified4071351.5567.6671 440.52 350.852 365.9172 720.3331 987.5
Hide subtree Water pollution abatement33.5177630.51 146.3331 7392 328.82 608.2952 557.8832 126.833
Water pollution abatementWater and wastewater treatment30.5170604.51 110.3331 7162 307.82 526.2952 536.8832 097.833
Fertilizers from wastewater..31172227.51930.515
Oil spill and pollutant clean-up3848574352147.54847.5
Hide subtree Waste management55101435.5982.4171 380.9171 590.9171 793.5311 677.3332 182.205
Waste managementSolid waste collection61640146.5173.5280.833254.5240239.833
Material recovery, recycling and re-use2934217.5435.25697.417757.333856.067845.251 334.205
Fertilizers from waste9750102.5155.167162.167170.714227.167211.167
Incineration and energy recovery1241108157.667208.833200293.5213.667172.333
Waste management – Not elsewhere classified..758271.5368.5433.583490.083361.583557.633
Soil remediation....3101113106100.59070.5
Environmental monitoring......1164028.16770.2561.5
Hide subtree Climate change adaptation technologies3490.5434805.6332 713.9052 841.2953 445.1713 756.5223 874.817
Climate change adaptation technologiesHide subtree Adaptation at coastal zones or river basin1..4183232.5262835
Adaptation at coastal zones or river basinControlling, monitoring or forecasting......1234413
Flood prevention; flood or storm water management....1515139.526
Artificial reefs or seaweed; restoration or protection of coral reefs....1111..42
Dune restoration or creation; cliff stabilisation......111112
Hard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters1..381312.5101611
Hide subtree Water resource management1043.5118175393615.4171 003.083882.917608.583
Water resource managementHide subtree Demand-side technologies (water conservation)4155695248.5320.25555.833563.5312.333
Demand-side technologies (water conservation)Indoor water conservation210193558101.5133187125
Irrigation water conservation..11332110.5121.083128.833164.917112.833
Water conservation in thermoelectric power production2424308097.667296215.58379.5
Hide subtree Supply-side technologies (water availability)629.56283148.5301.167472.25339.417301.25
Supply-side technologies (water availability)Water desalination..11.524195394.5142.75122.417104.667
Water filtration; Water and wastewater treatment29304252.556.667146.510086.75
Water storage and distribution1137155032.54336.5
Water collection (rain, surface and ground-water)39111142118157.598.5100.5
Protecting water resources..1156102369
Hide subtree Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation9158981.5147.667160.667257.833224.333198.5
Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operationPlanning or developing urban green infrastructure..219141325.530927.5
In transportation....5109.1679.66727.536.523
Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies7540245654.574.33370.83341.667
Structural elements or technology for improving thermal insulation2691953.547786359.333
Extreme weather resilient electric power supply systems..1129125112718
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary production321121169.5371.833432.5557.55610.2628.5
Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary productionIn food processing or handling, e.g. food conservation132119463561.1675163
Ecological corridors or buffer zones....1259867
In agriculture31491126.5272.667310.667374.05411.2370
In fisheries management..382250.66775.833113.333138164.5
In livestock or poultry..114121625
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather1216104355.1331 610.7381 377.4451 457.7051 766.5722 063.317
Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weatherAgainst vector-borne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change91057219.1331 325.905945.395955.2381 198.0721 539.733
Air quality improvement or preservation3647135275.833416.05490.967547.5509.583
Hide subtree Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change1..1127.5212.167296.6241.833346.25400.417
Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate changeMonitoring or fighting invasive species......121256
Assessment of water resources1..541016181913
Information and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change, e.g. for weather forecasting or climate simulation....622.5200.167280.6222.833322.25381.417
Not elsewhere classified........1..0.66711
Hide subtree Sustainable ocean economy830.5144.5188310.3335171 105.133858.667839.083
Sustainable ocean economyHide subtree Ocean renewable energy generation..1331552.5149.667434.633285301
Ocean renewable energy generationOffshore wind energy....2..214114176.5165.5
Offshore solar energy......11172220
Tide, wave, current and other marine energy..1331532.5118.667313.633204.5136
Climate change mitigation and adaptation in fishing, aquaculture and aquafarming..382251.66780.833115.333141167.5
Desalination of sea water..11.524195394.5142.75122.417104.667
Climate change adaptation in coastal zones1116274538.5375553
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation in maritime transport3112.5143761.333111.667136.7593.75
Climate change mitigation in maritime transportImproved vessel design21512282846.66770.7541
Fuel-efficient propulsion or fuel substitution1..7.52933.333656953.75
Hide subtree Ocean pollution abatement413579175.167104.167298.75147.25138.167
Ocean pollution abatementBallast water treatment..22612.53674.573.7555
Oil spill (and other floating debris) prevention and cleanup411558562.66769.167225.2573.583.167
Data extracted on 23 Feb 2024 07:09 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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