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Patent office
Year1980199020002005201020152020
Technology domain
All technologies (total patents)27 55279 758127 433151 095151 468166 039183 967
Hide subtree Environment-related technologies2 3425 5719 99113 10621 01020 67121 153
Environment-related technologiesHide subtree Environmental management9442 9624 5325 6435 9445 6594 985
Environmental managementHide subtree Air pollution abatement4201 5722 7073 5103 5703 3182 219
Air pollution abatementEmissions abatement from stationary sources (e.g. SOx, NOx, PM emissions from combustion plants)1145716559001 189862745
Emissions abatement from mobile sources (e.g. NOx, CO, HC, PM emissions from motor vehicles)2198521 9522 4182 1052 0111 124
Air pollution abatement - Not elsewhere classified1163928391 4101 5191 4271 096
Hide subtree Water pollution abatement3788481 1221 3991 5471 4431 410
Water pollution abatementWater and wastewater treatment3588301 1071 3871 5341 4231 398
Fertilizers from wastewater8111116182113
Oil spill and pollutant clean-up40403224354928
Hide subtree Waste management1887399169651 1311 1011 552
Waste managementSolid waste collection1293120162143118134
Material recovery, recycling and re-use102303451440560641941
Fertilizers from waste3074112116122144166
Incineration and energy recovery31159162164176135153
Waste management – Not elsewhere classified24206214262292248399
Soil remediation..839672535340
Environmental monitoring121118214536
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation1 7113 4667 1019 55717 67617 33018 089
Climate change mitigationHide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distribution6991 1682 5773 6848 9687 1138 084
Climate change mitigation technologies related to energy generation, transmission or distributionHide subtree Renewable energy generation2911635891 0274 2532 4592 035
Renewable energy generationWind energy31161292711 329736850
Solar thermal energy1532982130735296156
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy681063636012 3211 4311 012
Solar thermal-PV hybrids....6746597
Geothermal energy1431116573020
Marine energy, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient209315822112559
Hydro energy1311395718111166
Hide subtree Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil origin4644129228775525294
Energy generation from fuels of non-fossil originBiofuels, e.g. bio-diesel191484160648388201
Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel313171112289222137
Hide subtree Nuclear energy118274110106233255212
Nuclear energyNuclear fusion reactors9581515395257
Nuclear fission reactors1072139691187194139
Hide subtree Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)34102150187413273163
Combustion technologies with mitigation potential (e.g. using fossil fuels, biomass, waste, etc.)Technologies for improved output efficiency (combined heat and power, combined cycles, etc.)85110112025218393
Technologies for improved input efficiency (efficient combustion or heat usage)2659557819410172
Hide subtree Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution141126587174191162
Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distributionSuperconducting electric elements or equipment101003951464434
Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector....35555952
Not elsewhere classified4122632789680
Hide subtree Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)2144831 5712 1493 5423 7335 460
Enabling technologies (technologies with potential or indirect contribution to GHG emission mitigation)Hide subtree Energy storage1523151 0099902 3612 6274 353
Energy storageBatteries1152598988112 0482 3204 112
Capacitors..289914422318967
Mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheels or pressurised fluids9516201077668
Thermal energy storage28273668153200140
Hydrogen technology3637115224325358507
High-voltage direct current transmission15314347631
Fuel cells291265671 069919710630
Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions145839188152115
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste management1864556066147627421 030
Climate change mitigation technologies related to wastewater treatment or waste managementWastewater treatment84146179202272197178
Hide subtree Solid waste management103309420393459527745
Solid waste managementWaste collection, transportation, transfer or storage..2612243
Waste processing or separation......361125
Landfill technologies aiming to mitigate methane emissions..434114
Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse18436261536264
Hide subtree Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies71250331310373450649
Reuse, recycling or recovery technologiesMechanical processing of waste for the recovery of materials, e.g. crushing, shredding, separation or disassembly3315424322660
Waste management of vehicles..111....1
Construction or demolition [C&D] waste2622474
Glass recycling..4612423
Plastics and rubber recycling1856157122118135304
Paper recycling15382216293422
Disintegrating fibre-containing textile articles to obtain fibres for re-use111..226
Recovery of fats, fatty oils, fatty acids or other fatty substances, e.g. lanolin or waxes135108118
Recycling of wood or furniture waste....32..28
Packaging reuse or recycling, e.g. of multilayer packaging6232521312787
Recycling of waste of electrical or electronic equipment (WEEE)..11121391415
Recycling of batteries or fuel cells3991291758
Use of waste materials as fillers for mortars or concrete279487109165206160
Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation1923314734148
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)10683667351 2281 7681 806
Climate change mitigation in information and communication technologies (ICT)Energy efficient computing51775188364597463
Energy efficiency in communication networks5553045819331 2771 378
Hide subtree Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gases2349140121363281266
Capture, storage, sequestration or disposal of greenhouse gasesCapture or disposal of nitrous oxide (N2O)..72321353728
Capture or disposal of methane (CH4)58139283336
Capture or disposal of perfluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)..5341851117
Capture or disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2)21358078313216202
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportation1846131 6042 4524 0424 3853 778
Climate change mitigation technologies related to transportationHide subtree Road transport1525061 2581 7683 0443 0672 576
Road transportConventional vehicles (based on internal combustion engine)1124118891 2641 4051 298611
Hybrid vehicles724178222428345264
Electric vehicles27572583571 3721 3621 623
Fuel efficiency-improving vehicle design (common to all road vehicles)83078101236243269
Rail transport2161820614547
Maritime or waterways transport892140807559
Aeronautics or air transport23812775348221 1711 011
Hide subtree Enabling technologies in transport5798188606645951
Enabling technologies in transportElectric vehicle charging554054508556821
Application of hydrogen technology to transportation, e.g. using fuel cells..273143122114141
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildings2152806781 0732 3702 1511 706
Climate change mitigation technologies related to buildingsIntegration of renewable energy sources in buildings852594118628345249
Hide subtree Energy efficiency in buildings1422295158571 6811 6791 323
Energy efficiency in buildingsEnergy efficient lighting1647125273480519279
Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]10197176323570536515
Energy efficiency in home appliances6236995193177141
Energy efficient elevators, escalators and moving walkways, e.g. energy saving or recuperation technologies1..2313210
End-user side1863157170450495399
Architectural or constructional elements improving the thermal performance of buildings3132919436146
Enabling technologies in buildings92858104203206155
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goods6251 1722 2652 4664 2664 1934 543
Climate change mitigation technologies in the production or processing of goodsHide subtree Technologies related to metal processing1231652552583647401 002
Technologies related to metal processingReduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions12234629352021
Process efficiency114144221236349726988
Hide subtree Technologies relating to chemical industry3545879308001 149881917
Technologies relating to chemical industryProcess efficiency in chemical industry3776165169327229212
Feedstock4567110122170122179
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, e.g. CO2121630351127971
Improvements relating to chlorine production..13..83..
Improvements relating to adipic acid or caprolactam production....1......4
Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals1141314274521
Hide subtree Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry201431121299166148
Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industryBio-feedstock13121980252140110
Ethylene production1241566423430
Hide subtree Technologies relating to the processing of minerals3286126106175263130
Technologies relating to the processing of mineralsProduction of cement13282320596978
Production or processing of lime113471113
Glass production1539887210517132
Production of ceramic materials or ceramic elements217111271012
Hide subtree Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries23346377153208219
Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industriesUsing renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping353120148
Measures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses1314193121
Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture815273156127138
Land use policy measures........1....
Afforestation or reforestation1....1..21
Livestock or poultry management....2..114
Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming..2361012..
Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking1092934473252
Technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products652116558551 8211 4951 519
Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications15192878174149101
Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to GHG emissions mitigation587226238339436676
Hide subtree Climate change adaptation technologies2155801 7742 1212 4202 3032 051
Climate change adaptation technologiesHide subtree Adaptation at coastal zones or river basin..81327261220
Adaptation at coastal zones or river basinHard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters..458728
Dune restoration or creation; cliff stabilisation..1....21..
Artificial reefs or seaweed; restoration or protection of coral reefs........1021
Flood prevention; flood or storm water management..1715757
Controlling, monitoring or forecasting......3..23
Hide subtree Water resource management84115346337647397351
Water resource managementHide subtree Demand-side technologies (water conservation)2868251196403264198
Demand-side technologies (water conservation)Indoor water conservation6242277768170
Irrigation water conservation1210180681297073
Water conservation in thermoelectric power production1036495120011660
Hide subtree Supply-side technologies (water availability)564796147262146159
Supply-side technologies (water availability)Water desalination6936511034363
Water filtration; Water and wastewater treatment30263932554436
Water collection (rain, surface and ground-water)19102451863540
Water storage and distribution..3113232124
Protecting water resources1..3717104
Hide subtree Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation295211699168177125
Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operationExtreme weather resilient electric power supply systems10315312168
Structural elements or technology for improving thermal insulation3144424515554
Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies8184247524031
In transportation..716112611
Planning or developing urban green infrastructure38111123147
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary production54111235322389307309
Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agro-alimentary productionIn agriculture4487174226285210188
Ecological corridors or buffer zones....12392
In food processing or handling, e.g. food conservation3142637451828
In livestock or poultry....2..157
In fisheries management7103257556984
Hide subtree Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather482859771 0861 0501 2241 044
Adaptation technologies in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weatherAir quality improvement or preservation16126149246284299218
Against vector-borne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change32159829832764910815
Hide subtree Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change520116309230228229
Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate changeInformation and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change, e.g. for weather forecasting or climate simulation417111305223217222
Assessment of water resources1153584
Monitoring or fighting invasive species..2..1233
Not elsewhere classified....1..21..
Hide subtree Sustainable ocean economy8699210316692494495
Sustainable ocean economyHide subtree Ocean renewable energy generation20124773340181204
Ocean renewable energy generationOffshore wind energy13151712157130
Offshore solar energy........7515
Tide, wave, current and other marine energy209325922912979
Climate change mitigation and adaptation in fishing, aquaculture and aquafarming7123261567184
Desalination of sea water6936511034363
Climate change adaptation in coastal zones10112830382828
Hide subtree Ocean pollution abatement4246507310511183
Ocean pollution abatementBallast water treatment..2635533838
Oil spill (and other floating debris) prevention and cleanup42444439537346
Hide subtree Climate change mitigation in maritime transport892034747250
Climate change mitigation in maritime transportImproved vessel design28149362519
Fuel-efficient propulsion or fuel substitution61625384732
Data extracted on 19 Apr 2024 00:10 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

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